Zika virus /'zi?k?, 'z?k?/ (ZIKV) is a member of the virus family Flaviviridae and the genus Flavivirus. It is spread by daytime-activeAedes mosquitoes, such as A. aegypti and A. albopictus. Its name comes from the Zika Forest of Uganda, where the virus was first isolated in 1947. Zika virus is related to dengue, yellow fever, Japanese encephalitis, and West Nile viruses.
The infection, known as Zika fever, often causes no or only mild symptoms, similar to a very mild form of dengue fever. It is treated by rest. Since the 1950s, it has been known to occur within a narrow equatorial belt from Africa to Asia. The virus spread eastward across the Pacific Ocean 2013–2014 Zika virus outbreaks in Oceania to French Polynesia, New Caledonia, the Cook Islands, and Easter Island, and in 2015 to Mexico, Central America, the Caribbean, and South America, where the Zika outbreak has reached pandemic levels. As of 2016, the illness cannot be prevented by medications or vaccines. Zika may spread from a pregnant woman to the baby. This may result in microcephaly and other severe brain problems. Zika infections in adults can, rarely, result in Guillain-Barré syndrome.
In January 2016, the United States Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) issued travel guidance on affected countries, including the use of enhanced precautions, and guidelines for pregnant women including considering postponing travel. Other governments or health agencies also issued similar travel warnings, while Colombia, the Dominican Republic, Ecuador, El Salvador, and Jamaica advised women to postpone getting pregnant until more is known about the risks.
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hajra a, bandyopadhyay d, hajra sk. zika virus: a global threat to humanity: a comprehensive review and current developments. north am j med sci [serial online] 2016 [cited 2016 may 19];8:123-8. available from: http://www.najms.org/text.asp?2016/8/3/123/179112