A ventricular septal defect (VSD) is a defect in the ventricular septum, the wall dividing the left and right ventricles of the heart. The extent of the opening may vary from pin size to complete absence of the ventricular septum, creating one common ventricle.
The ventricular septum consists of an inferior muscular and superior membranous portion and is extensively innervated with conducting cardiomyocytes.
The membranous portion, which is close to the atrioventricular node, is most commonly affected in adults and older children in the United States. It is also the type that will most commonly require surgical intervention, comprising over 80% of cases.
Membranous ventricular septal defects are more common than muscular ventricular septal defects, and are the most common congenital cardiac anomaly.
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http://heart.bmj.com/content/89/8/937heart 2003;89:937-938 doi:10.1136/heart.89.8.937 scientific letters prevalence of haemoptysis in adults with pulmonary atresia and ventricular septal defect, and the role of mammary artery collateral vessels by k greaves et al.,
http://www.jultrasoundmed.org/content/27/5/715.full.pdf prenatal course of isolated muscular ventricular septal defects diagnosed only by color doppler sonography single-institution experience by mert ozan bahtiyar, md et al., j ultrasound med 2008; 27:715–720 • 0278-4297/08/$3.50
kumar s, choudhury a, velayudam d, kiran u. peri-operative challenges in post myocardial infarction ventricular septal rupture: a case series and review of literature. saudi j anaesth [serial online] 2014 [cited 2016 aug 5];8:546-9. available from: http://www.saudija.org/text.asp?2014/8/4/546/140895
maxwell bg, harrington kb, kelly ne. anesthetic management for reentry sternotomy in a patient with a full stomach and pericardial tamponade from left ventricular rupture. ann card anaesth [serial online] 2013 [cited 2016 aug 5];16:51-3. available from: http://www.annals.in/text.asp?2013/16/1/51/105371
nemani l, barik r, patnaik an, mishra rc, rao am, kapur p. coffin-siris syndrome with the rarest constellation of congenital cardiac defects: a case report with review of literature. ann pediatr card [serial online] 2014 [cited 2016 aug 5];7:221-6. available from: http://www.annalspc.com/text.asp?2014/7/3/221/140859
seetharama bhat p s, girish gowda s l, mahimarangaiah j, manjunath cn. giant coronary-pulmonary fistula with pulmonary atresia, ventricular septal defect, and coronary anomaly: a case report and review of literature. ann pediatr card [serial online] 2014 [cited 2016 aug 5];7:142-4. available from: http://www.annalspc.com/text.asp?2014/7/2/142/132496