Ventricular Septal Defect(VSD)

Ventricular Septal Defect(VSD)

Last Reviewed : 12/29/2020
Ventricular Septal Defect(VSD)

A ventricular septal defect (VSD) is a defect in the ventricular septum, the wall dividing the left and right ventricles of the heart. The extent of the opening may vary from pin size to complete absence of the ventricular septum, creating one common ventricle.

The ventricular septum consists of an inferior muscular and superior membranous portion and is extensively innervated with conducting cardiomyocytes.

The membranous portion, which is close to the atrioventricular node, is most commonly affected in adults and older children in the United States. It is also the type that will most commonly require surgical intervention, comprising over 80% of cases.

Membranous ventricular septal defects are more common than muscular ventricular septal defects, and are the most common congenital cardiac anomaly.

We researched this topic for you and found the following best online resources. They are categorized into basic, advanced, and research level based on the extent of information you need. You will be taken to the respective websites by pressing on the links below.


Basic information: ventricular septal defect (vsd) mayo clinic ventricular septal defect ( vsd) medline plus ventricular septal defect ( vsd) cdc facts about ventricular septal defect kids helth ventricular septal defect ( vsd) congenital heart diseases ventricular septal defect ( vsd) health line ventricular septal defect ( vsd) kids health ventricular septal defect ( vsd) merck manuals (professional version) ventricular septal defect ( vsd) easy auscultation ventricular septal defect ( vsd) web md ventricular septal defect ( vsd) university of maryland medical center ventricular septal defect ( vsd) cleveland clinic ventricular septal defect ( vsd) all about kids health ventricular septal defect: closure in the heart catheterization lab new york times ventricular septal defect ( vsd) healio ventricular septal defect ( vsd)




Advanced information: medscape ventricular septal defect ( vsd) medicine net ventricular septal defect (vsd) emedicine health ventricular septal defect ( vsd) patient ventricular septal defect ( vsd) national organisation for rare diseases ventricular septal defect ( vsd) radiopedia ventricular septal defect ( vsd) pediatric clerckship ventricular septal defect ( vsd) family practise note book ventricular septal defect ( vsd) cardioiap ventricular septal defect ( vsd)


Research: ventricular septal defect by diane e spicer et al., orphanet journal of rare diseases20149:144 doi: 10.1186/s13023-014-0144-2 ventricular septal defects by mary s. minette and david j. sahn ventricular septal defects: embryology and imaging findings by rojas, carlos andres md journal of thoracic imaging:march 2013 - volume 28 - issue 2 - p w28–w34 doi: 10.1097/rti.0b013e31824b5b95 long-term outcome of patients with ventricular septal defect considered not to require surgical closure during childhood by harald m gabriel, md et al., j am coll cardiol. 2002;39(6):1066-1071. doi:10.1016/s0735-1097(02)01706-0 heart 2003;89:937-938 doi:10.1136/heart.89.8.937 scientific letters prevalence of haemoptysis in adults with pulmonary atresia and ventricular septal defect, and the role of mammary artery collateral vessels by k greaves et al., braz j med biol res, july 2006, volume 39(7) 925-934 congenital ventricular septal defects and prenatal exposure to cyclooxygenase inhibitors by f. burdan et al., bmh medical journal 2014;1(3):56-63 point of view device closure of small ventricular septal defects: when and why? by ib vijayalakshmi, md, dm, dsc. percutaneous transcatheter closure of ventricular septal defects using an amplatz device by juan a herrador et al., rev esp cardiol. 2006;59:510-4 - vol. 59 num.05 doi: 10.1016/s1885-5857(06)60801-3 surgical closure of a perimembranous ventricular septum defect with a running suture by achim häussler and rené prêtre by mmcts 2008 (0523): :mmcts.2006.002410doi: 10.1510/mmcts.2006.002410 ventricular septal defect and cardiomyopathy in mice lacking the transcription factor chf1/hey2 by yasuhiko sakata et al., ? 16197–16202, doi: 10.1073/pnas.252648999 prenatal course of isolated muscular ventricular septal defects diagnosed only by color doppler sonography single-institution experience by mert ozan bahtiyar, md et al., j ultrasound med 2008; 27:715–720 • 0278-4297/08/$3.50

kumar s, choudhury a, velayudam d, kiran u. peri-operative challenges in post myocardial infarction ventricular septal rupture: a case series and review of literature. saudi j anaesth [serial online] 2014 [cited 2016 aug 5];8:546-9. available from:

maxwell bg, harrington kb, kelly ne. anesthetic management for reentry sternotomy in a patient with a full stomach and pericardial tamponade from left ventricular rupture. ann card anaesth [serial online] 2013 [cited 2016 aug 5];16:51-3. available from:

shirali gs. three dimensional echocardiography in congenital heart defects. ann pediatr card [serial online] 2008 [cited 2016 aug 5];1:8-17. available from:

ryan l, skinner dl, rodseth rn. ventricular septal defect following blunt chest trauma. j emerg trauma shock [serial online] 2012 [cited 2016 aug 5];5:184-7. available from:

nemani l, barik r, patnaik an, mishra rc, rao am, kapur p. coffin-siris syndrome with the rarest constellation of congenital cardiac defects: a case report with review of literature. ann pediatr card [serial online] 2014 [cited 2016 aug 5];7:221-6. available from:

seetharama bhat p s, girish gowda s l, mahimarangaiah j, manjunath cn. giant coronary-pulmonary fistula with pulmonary atresia, ventricular septal defect, and coronary anomaly: a case report and review of literature. ann pediatr card [serial online] 2014 [cited 2016 aug 5];7:142-4. available from:


Other articles: pet md defect of the ventricular septum in dogs the merck veterinary manuals ventricular septal defect ( vsd) vet med case studies in small animal ventricular septal defect ( vsd) pet education ventricular septal defect (vsa): a congenital heart disorder in puppies vet stream heart: ventricular septal defect


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