trigeminal-neuralgia
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Trigeminal Neuralgia

Trigeminal Neuralgia

Last Reviewed : 12/29/2020
Trigeminal Neuralgia

Trigeminal neuralgia (TN or TGN) is a chronic pain disorder that affects the trigeminal nerve. There are two main types: typical and atypical trigeminal neuralgia. The typical form results in episodes of severe, sudden, shock like pain in one side of the face that lasts for seconds to a few minutes. Groups of these episodes can occur over a few hours. The atypical form results in a constant burning pain that is less severe. Episodes may be triggered by any touch to the face. Both forms may occur in the same person. It is one of the most painful conditions and can result in depression.

The exact cause is unclear but believed to involve loss of the myelin around the trigeminal nerve. This may occur due to compression from a blood vessel as the nerve exits the brain stem, multiple sclerosis, stroke, or trauma. Less common causes include a tumor or arteriovenous malformation. It is a type of nerve pain. Diagnosis is typically based on the symptoms after ruling out other possible causes such as postherpetic neuralgia.

Treatment includes medication or surgery. The anticonvulsant carbamazepine or oxcarbazepine is the usual initial treatment and is effective in about 80% of people. Other options include lamotrigine, baclofen, gabapentin, and pimozide. Amitriptylinemay help with the pain but opioids are not usually effective in the typical form. In those who do not improve or become resistant to other measures, a number of types of surgery may be tried.

It is estimated that 1 in 8,000 people develop trigeminal neuralgia a year. It usually begins in people over 50 years old, but can occur at any age. Women are more commonly affected than men. The condition was first described in detail in 1773 by John Fothergill.

We researched this topic for you and found the following best online resources. They are categorized into basic, advanced, and research level based on the extent of information you need. You will be taken to the respective websites by pressing on the links below.

 

 

Basic information:

https://www.ninds.nih.gov/disorders/patient-caregiver-education/fact-sheets/trigeminal-neuralgia-fact-sheet nationla institute of neurological disorders and stroke trigeminal neuralgia

http://www.mayoclinic.org/diseases-conditions/trigeminal-neuralgia/basics/definition/con-20043802 mayoclinic trigeminal neuralgia

http://www.nhs.uk/conditions/trigeminal-neuralgia/pages/introduction.aspx nhs uk trigeminal neuralgia

http://www.aans.org/patient%20information/conditions%20and%20treatments/trigeminal%20neuralgia.aspx americanassociation of neurological surgeons trigeminal neuralgia

http://www.webmd.com/pain-management/guide/trigeminal-neuralgia#1 web md what is trigeminal neuralgia?

http://www.mayfieldclinic.com/pe-trin.htm mayfield trigeminal neuralgia

http://www.healthline.com/health/trigeminal-neuralgia healthline trigeminal neuralgia

https://medlineplus.gov/trigeminalneuralgia.html medline plus trigeminal neuralgia

http://www.hopkinsmedicine.org/healthlibrary/conditions/adult/nervous_system_disorders/trigeminal_neuralgia_134,66/ john hopkins medicine trigeminal neuralgia

https://familydoctor.org/condition/trigeminal-neuralgia/ family doctor trigeminal neuralgia

http://www.merckmanuals.com/professional/neurologic-disorders/neuro-ophthalmologic-and-cranial-nerve-disorders/trigeminal-neuralgia merck manuals trigeminal neuralgia

http://www.nytimes.com/health/guides/disease/trigeminal-neuralgia/overview.html newyork times trigeminal neuralgia

https://www.betterhealth.vic.gov.au/health/conditionsandtreatments/neuralgia better health trigeminal neuralgia

http://umm.edu/health/medical/ency/articles/trigeminal-neuralgia university of maryland medical center trigeminal neuralgia

https://www.verywell.com/trigeminal-neuralgia-and-multiple-sclerosis-2440818 very well severe facial pain from trigeminal neuralgia in multiple sclerosis

 

Advanced information:

http://emedicine.medscape.com/article/1145144-overview medscape trigeminal neuralgia

http://www.medicinenet.com/trigeminal_neuralgia/article.htm medicine net trigeminal neuralgia

http://patient.info/in/health/trigeminal-neuralgia-leaflet patient trigeminal neuralgia

http://www.medicalnewstoday.com/articles/160252.php medical news today what is trigeminal neuralgia? what causes trigeminal neuralgia?

http://www.emedicinehealth.com/trigeminal_neuralgia_facial_nerve_pain/article_em.htm emedicine health trigeminal neuralgia

https://rarediseases.org/rare-diseases/trigeminal-neuralgia/ national organisation of rare diseases trigeminal neuralgia

https://radiopaedia.org/articles/trigeminal-neuralgia radiopedia trigeminal neuralgia

http://www.aafp.org/afp/2008/0501/p1291.html trigeminal neuralgia rudolph m. krafft, md, northeastern ohio universities college of medicine, rootstown, ohio am fam physician. 2008 may 1;77(9):1291-1296.

http://www.hse.ie/eng/health/az/n/neuralgia,-trigeminal/ health service executive trigeminal neuralgia

 

Research:

roy c, chatterjee n. classical is not that simple: lesson from trigeminal neuralgia. saudi j anaesth [serial online] 2014 [cited 2017 jan 26];8, suppl s1:120-1. available from: http://www.saudija.org/text.asp?2014/8/5/120/144102

hai j, li st, pan qg. treatment of atypical trigeminal neuralgia with microvascular decompression. neurol india [serial online] 2006 [cited 2017 jan 26];54:53-6. available from: http://www.neurologyindia.com/text.asp?2006/54/1/53/24706

http://jmedicalcasereports.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/1752-1947-6-333 trigeminal neuralgia post-styloidectomy in eagle syndrome: a case report by john william blackett et al., journal of medical case reports20126:333 doi: 10.1186/1752-1947-6-333

https://www.hindawi.com/journals/crid/2016/4605231/ yuko ono, tsuyoshi shimo, yoshinori shirafuji, et al., “drug-induced hypersensitivity syndrome caused by carbamazepine used for the treatment of trigeminal neuralgia,” case reports in dentistry, vol. 2016, article id 4605231, 4 pages, 2016. doi:10.1155/2016/4605231

hashmi ma, guha g, saha b. trigeminal neuralgia in an hiv patient. j global infect dis [serial online] 2010 [cited 2017 jan 26];2:65-6. available from: http://www.jgid.org/text.asp?2010/2/1/65/59254

http://jneuroinflammation.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/1742-2094-9-136 chemokine ccl2 and its receptor ccr2 in the medullary dorsal horn are involved in trigeminal neuropathic pain by zhi-jun zhang et al., journal of neuroinflammation20129:136 doi: 10.1186/1742-2094-9-136

maluli ha. dofetilide induced trigeminal neuralgia. indian j pharmacol [serial online] 2015 [cited 2017 jan 26];47:336-7. available from: http://www.ijp-online.com/text.asp?2015/47/3/336/157138

gupta v, singh a k, kumar s, sinha s. familial trigeminal neuralgia. neurol india [serial online] 2002 [cited 2017 jan 26];50:87. available from: http://www.neurologyindia.com/text.asp?2002/50/1/87/1355

http://jmedicalcasereports.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.4076/1752-1947-3-7813 facial herpes zoster infection precipitated by surgical manipulation of the trigeminal nerve during exploration of the posterior fossa: a case report by nassir mansour et al., journal of medical case reports20093:7813 doi: 10.4076/1752-1947-3-7813

ramesh vg. author's reply: surgical approaches to trigeminal neuralgia. neurol india [serial online] 2016 [cited 2017 jan 26];64:1392-3. available from: http://www.neurologyindia.com/text.asp?2016/64/6/1392/193765

https://www.hindawi.com/journals/crim/2011/258910/ guy c. jones, ameer l. elaimy, john j. demakas, et al., “feasibility of multiple repeat gamma knife radiosurgeries for trigeminal neuralgia: a case report and review of the literature,” case reports in medicine, vol. 2011, article id 258910, 4 pages, 2011. doi:10.1155/2011/258910

https://www.hindawi.com/journals/crim/2013/398513/ alexander mason, kristen ayres, sigita burneikiene, alan t. villavicencio, e. lee nelson, and sharad rajpal, “a novel case of resolved postherpetic neuralgia with subsequent development of trigeminal neuralgia: a case report and review of the literature,” case reports in medicine, vol. 2013, article id 398513, 3 pages, 2013. doi:10.1155/2013/398513

niranjan a, lunsford l d. radiosurgery for the management of refractory trigeminal neuralgia. neurol india [serial online] 2016 [cited 2017 jan 26];64:624-9. available from: http://www.neurologyindia.com/text.asp?2016/64/4/624/185393

de almeida holanda mm, pereira neto ng, de moura peixoto g, pinheiro santos rh. trigeminal neuralgia secondary to basilar impression: a case report. j craniovert jun spine [serial online] 2015 [cited 2017 jan 26];6:76-8. available from: http://www.jcvjs.com/text.asp?2015/6/2/76/156062

qayoom n, syed s, ali z, khan t. trigeminal neuralgia: an overview of the clinical entity. j int clin dent res organ [serial online] 2015 [cited 2017 jan 26];7:165-7. available from: http://www.jicdro.org/text.asp?2015/7/2/165/164404

 

Other helpful resources(support groups):

http://fpa-support.org/trigeminal-neuralgia-support/ facial pain association

http://www.tna.org.uk/ trigeminal neuralgia association uk

http://tnaaustralia.org.au/ trigeminal neuralgia association australia

http://tnac.org/tnac/ trigeminal neuralgia association of canada

 

Related videos:

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=udexvbbuock trigeminal neuralgia

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=wypwgec3k-s understanding trigeminal neuralgia - ebrainmd.com

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=syw5nudmbxc what is trigeminal neuralgia? symptoms, causes, treatments | dr. neil martin - ucla neurosurgery

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ebr4wtthg9k trigeminal nerve final

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=tsabu3ixc1u trigeminal neuralgia (face pain)

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ypckupttxps trigeminal neuralgia: important things to know if you have facial pain-uf neurosurgery

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=nioxbj7oyki percutaneous procedures for trigeminal neuralgia: radiofrequency and balloon compression rhizotomy

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=qrk_xvp_5m0 trigeminal neuralgia treatment given by dr hitesh patel, ( actual patient's procedure video)

 

Presentations/quiz/newspaper articles:

http://indianexpress.com/article/lifestyle/health/how-to-get-treated-for-the-suicide-disease-trigeminal-neuralgia/ indian express how to get treated for the ‘suicide disease’, trigeminal neuralgia

http://www.bbc.com/news/uk-wales-23181650 bbc 'suicide disease' man is pain-free after 20 years of suffering

http://edition.cnn.com/2013/10/07/health/trigeminal-neuralgia-awareness-irpt/ cnn the shocking, stabbing pain disorder you've never heard of

http://www.dailymail.co.uk/health/article-3587635/stunning-student-s-smile-masks-agony-rare-disorder-triggers-stabbing-pains-face-slightest-touch.html daily mail stunning student's smile masks the agony of a rare disorder, which triggers stabbing pains across her face at the slightest touch
 

read more: http://www.dailymail.co.uk/health/article-3587635/stunning-student-s-smile-masks-agony-rare-disorder-triggers-stabbing-pains-face-slightest-touch.html#ixzz4wrbfrejy

http://www.thehindu.com/news/cities/vijayawada/awareness-on-trigeminal-neuralgia-abysmally-low/article15474075.ece the hindu awareness on trigeminal neuralgia abysmally low

http://timesofindia.indiatimes.com/city/ludhiana/painful-nerve-disorder-trigeminal-neuralgia-very-common-in-ludhiana/articleshow/18125069.cms times of india painful nerve disorder 'trigeminal neuralgia' very common in ludhiana

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