Last Reviewed : 12/29/2020

Toxoplasmosis is a parasitic disease caused by Toxoplasma gondii. Infections with toxoplasmosis usually cause no symptoms in adult humans. Occasionally there may be a few weeks or months of mild flu-like illness such as muscle aches and tender lymph nodes.[3] In a small number of people, eye problems may develop. In those with a weak immune system, severe symptoms such asseizures and poor coordination may occur. If infected during pregnancy, a condition known as congenital toxoplasmosis may affect the child.

Toxoplasmosis is usually spread by eating poorly cooked food that contains cysts, exposure to infected cat feces, and from a mother to a child during pregnancy if the mother becomes infected. Rarely the disease may be spread by a blood transfusion. It is not otherwise spread between people.[1] The parasite is only known to reproduce sexually in the cat family. However, it can infect most types of warm-blooded animals, including humans. Diagnosis is typically by testing the blood for antibodies or by testing theamniotic fluid for the parasite's DNA.

Prevention is by properly preparing and cooking food. It is also recommended that pregnant women not clean cat litter boxes. Treatment of otherwise healthy people is usually not needed. During pregnancy spiramycin or pyrimethamine/sulfadiazine and folinic acid may be used for treatment.

Up to half of the world's population are infected by toxoplasmosis but have no symptoms. In the United States about 23% are affected and in some areas of the world this is up to 95%.About 200,000 cases of congenital toxoplasmosis occur a year. Charles Nicolle and Louis Manceaux first described the organism in 1908. In 1941 transmission during pregnancy from a mother to a child was confirmed

We researched this topic for you and found the following best online resources. They are categorized into basic, advanced, and research level based on the extent of information you need. You will be taken to the respective websites by pressing on the links below.


Basic information: mayoclinic toxoplasmosis cdc toxoplasmosis web md pregnancy and toxoplasmosis kids health toxoplasmosis nhs uk toxoplasmosis medline plus toxoplasmosis health line toxoplasmosis msd manuals (professional version) toxoplasmosis better health toxoplasmosis healthy children cats and toxoplasmosis newyork times toxoplasmosis cleveland clinic toxoplasmosis & pregnancy health link bc foodborne illness: toxoplasmosis


Advanced information: medscape toxoplasmosis medicine net toxoplasmosis lab tests online toxoplasmosis testing toxoplasmosis congenital toxoplasmosis jeffrey jones, m.d., m.p.h., adriana lopez, m.h.s., and marianna wilson, m.s., centers for disease control and prevention, atlanta, georgia am fam physician. 2003 may 15;67(10):2131-2138.

cnrs. "toxoplasmosis: morbid attraction to leopards in parasitized chimpanzees." sciencedaily. sciencedaily, 9 february 2016. . emedicine health toxoplasmosis toxoplasmosis in pregnancy:prevention, screening, and treatment sogc clinical practice guideline patient toxoplasmosis dermnet nz toxoplasmosis food safety toxoplasmosis hiv insight toxoplasmosis and hiv american association of pediatric ophthalmology and strabismus toxoplasmosis kegg pathway toxoplasmosis radiopedia toxoplasmosis vs lymphoma


Research: mem. inst. oswaldo cruz vol.104 no.2 rio de janeiro mar. 2009 toxoplasma gondii: 1908-2008, homage to nicolle, manceaux and splendore by david j p ferguson meredith harrell and petros e. carvounis, “current treatment of toxoplasma retinochoroiditis: an evidence-based review,” journal of ophthalmology, vol. 2014, article id 273506, 7 pages, 2014. doi:10.1155/2014/273506 rev. inst. med. trop. s. paulo vol.57 no.2 são paulo mar./apr. 2015 review:toxoplasmosis in mexico: epidemiological situation in humans and animals by ivonne hernández-cortazar et al., michael j. brumlik, srilakshmi pandeswara, sara m. ludwig, kruthi murthy, and tyler j. curiel, “parasite mitogen-activated protein kinases as drug discovery targets to treat human protozoan pathogens,” journal of signal transduction, vol. 2011, article id 971968, 16 pages, 2011. doi:10.1155/2011/971968 ouyang y, pleyer u, shao q, keane pa, stu¨biger n, et al. (2014) evaluation of cystoid change phenotypes in ocular toxoplasmosis using optical coherence tomography. plos one 9(2): e86626. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0086626

khairallah m, jelliti b, jenzeri s. emergent infectious uveitis. middle east afr j ophthalmol [serial online] 2009 [cited 2016 jul 25];16:225-38. available from: a systematic review and meta-analysis of toxoplasma gondiiinfection among the mexican population by ma de la luz galvan-ramirez et al., parasites & vectors20125:271 doi: 10.1186/1756-3305-5-271 review article front. microbiol., 09 october 2014 | role of hormones on toxoplasma gondiiinfection: a systematic review by maría de la luz galván-ramírez : ngoungou eb, bhalla d, nzoghe a, dardé m-l, preux p-m (2015) toxoplasmosis and epilepsy— systematic review and meta analysis. plos negl trop dis 9(2): e0003525. doi:10.1371/journal.pntd.0003525 hotez pj, kamath a (2009) neglected tropical diseases in sub-saharan africa: review of their prevalence, distribution, and disease burden. plos negl trop dis 3(8): e412. doi:10.1371/journal.pntd.0000412 braz j infect dis vol.11 no.6 salvador dec. 2007 case reports congenital toxoplasmosis infection in an infant born to an hiv-1-infected mother by maria letícia santos cruz et al.,

singh s. mother-to-child transmission and diagnosis of toxoplasma gondii infection during pregnancy. indian j med microbiol [serial online] 2003 [cited 2016 jul 25];21:69-76. available from: tomavo s, slomianny c, meissner m, carruthers vb (2013) protein trafficking through the endosomal system prepares intracellular parasites for a home invasion. plos pathog 9(10): e1003629. doi:10.1371/journal.ppat.1003629 incidence and prevalence of toxoplasmosis in indian pregnant women: a prospective study by samran singh et al., american journal of reproductive immunology (new york, n.y.: 1989) 52(4):276-83


Other articles: cornell university college of veterinary medicine toxoplasmosis pet md toxoplasmosis in cats pet md toxoplasmosis in dogs international cat care toxoplasmosis and cats merck veternary manuals overview of toxoplasmosis pet education toxoplasmosis (toxoplasma gondii) in cats


Presentations/quiz/newspaper articles: the atlantic how your cat is making you crazy scientific american protozoa could be controlling your brain medical daily toxoplasma gondii, parasite in cat feces, linked to schizophrenia and other mental illness business insider the truth about the mind-controlling parasite you can get from your cat the scientist treating toxoplasmosis cbs news cat parasite linked to mental illness, schizophrenia independant beware of the cat: britain's hidden toxoplasma problem


Videos: toxoplasmosis - plain and simple toxoplasma gondii - life cycle and invasion toxoplasmosis toxoplasmosis & toxoplasma gondii toxoplasmosis transmission cycle toxoplasmosis: truth, fiction, and crazy cat ladies?


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