toxoplasmosis
18
Toxoplasmosis

Toxoplasmosis

Last Reviewed : 12/29/2020
Toxoplasmosis

Toxoplasmosis is a parasitic disease caused by Toxoplasma gondii. Infections with toxoplasmosis usually cause no symptoms in adult humans. Occasionally there may be a few weeks or months of mild flu-like illness such as muscle aches and tender lymph nodes.[3] In a small number of people, eye problems may develop. In those with a weak immune system, severe symptoms such asseizures and poor coordination may occur. If infected during pregnancy, a condition known as congenital toxoplasmosis may affect the child.

Toxoplasmosis is usually spread by eating poorly cooked food that contains cysts, exposure to infected cat feces, and from a mother to a child during pregnancy if the mother becomes infected. Rarely the disease may be spread by a blood transfusion. It is not otherwise spread between people.[1] The parasite is only known to reproduce sexually in the cat family. However, it can infect most types of warm-blooded animals, including humans. Diagnosis is typically by testing the blood for antibodies or by testing theamniotic fluid for the parasite's DNA.

Prevention is by properly preparing and cooking food. It is also recommended that pregnant women not clean cat litter boxes. Treatment of otherwise healthy people is usually not needed. During pregnancy spiramycin or pyrimethamine/sulfadiazine and folinic acid may be used for treatment.

Up to half of the world's population are infected by toxoplasmosis but have no symptoms. In the United States about 23% are affected and in some areas of the world this is up to 95%.About 200,000 cases of congenital toxoplasmosis occur a year. Charles Nicolle and Louis Manceaux first described the organism in 1908. In 1941 transmission during pregnancy from a mother to a child was confirmed

We researched this topic for you and found the following best online resources. They are categorized into basic, advanced, and research level based on the extent of information you need. You will be taken to the respective websites by pressing on the links below.

 

Basic information:

http://www.mayoclinic.org/diseases-conditions/toxoplasmosis/basics/definition/con-20025859 mayoclinic toxoplasmosis

http://www.cdc.gov/parasites/toxoplasmosis/ cdc toxoplasmosis

http://www.webmd.com/baby/toxoplasmosis web md pregnancy and toxoplasmosis

http://kidshealth.org/en/parents/toxoplasmosis.html kids health toxoplasmosis

http://www.nhs.uk/conditions/toxoplasmosis/pages/introduction.aspx nhs uk toxoplasmosis

https://medlineplus.gov/ency/article/000637.htm medline plus toxoplasmosis

http://www.healthline.com/health/toxoplasmosis health line toxoplasmosis

https://www.msdmanuals.com/professional/infectious-diseases/extraintestinal-protozoa/toxoplasmosis msd manuals (professional version) toxoplasmosis

https://www.betterhealth.vic.gov.au/health/conditionsandtreatments/toxoplasmosis better health toxoplasmosis

https://www.healthychildren.org/english/health-issues/conditions/from-insects-animals/pages/cats-and-toxoplasmosis.aspx healthy children cats and toxoplasmosis

http://www.nytimes.com/health/guides/disease/toxoplasmosis/overview.html newyork times toxoplasmosis

http://my.clevelandclinic.org/health/diseases_conditions/hic_am_i_pregnant/hic_premature_labor/hic_toxoplasmosis_and_pregnancy cleveland clinic toxoplasmosis & pregnancy

http://www.healthlinkbc.ca/healthtopics/content.asp?hwid=ug2077 health link bc foodborne illness: toxoplasmosis

 

Advanced information:

http://emedicine.medscape.com/article/229969-overview medscape toxoplasmosis

http://www.medicinenet.com/toxoplasmosis/article.htm medicine net toxoplasmosis

https://labtestsonline.org/understanding/analytes/toxoplasmosis/tab/test/ lab tests online toxoplasmosis testing

http://www.cfsph.iastate.edu/factsheets/pdfs/toxoplasmosis.pdf toxoplasmosis

http://www.aafp.org/afp/2003/0515/p2131.html congenital toxoplasmosis jeffrey jones, m.d., m.p.h., adriana lopez, m.h.s., and marianna wilson, m.s., centers for disease control and prevention, atlanta, georgia am fam physician. 2003 may 15;67(10):2131-2138.

cnrs. "toxoplasmosis: morbid attraction to leopards in parasitized chimpanzees." sciencedaily. sciencedaily, 9 february 2016. www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2016/02/160209090622.htm .

http://www.emedicinehealth.com/toxoplasmosis/article_em.htm emedicine health toxoplasmosis

http://sogc.org/wp-content/uploads/2013/02/gui285cpg1301e-toxoplasmosis.pdf toxoplasmosis in pregnancy:prevention, screening, and treatment sogc clinical practice guideline

http://patient.info/doctor/toxoplasmosis-pro patient toxoplasmosis

http://www.dermnetnz.org/arthropods/toxoplasmosis.html dermnet nz toxoplasmosis

https://www.foodsafety.gov/poisoning/causes/parasites/toxoplasmosis/ food safety toxoplasmosis

http://hivinsite.ucsf.edu/insite?page=kb-05-04-03 hiv insight toxoplasmosis and hiv

http://www.aapos.org/terms/conditions/106 american association of pediatric ophthalmology and strabismus toxoplasmosis

http://www.genome.jp/kegg-bin/show_pathway?hsa05145 kegg pathway toxoplasmosis

http://radiopaedia.org/articles/toxoplasmosis-vs-lymphoma radiopedia toxoplasmosis vs lymphoma

 

Research:

http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=s0074-02762009000200003 mem. inst. oswaldo cruz vol.104 no.2 rio de janeiro mar. 2009 http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/s0074-02762009000200003 toxoplasma gondii: 1908-2008, homage to nicolle, manceaux and splendore by david j p ferguson

http://www.hindawi.com/journals/joph/2014/273506/ meredith harrell and petros e. carvounis, “current treatment of toxoplasma retinochoroiditis: an evidence-based review,” journal of ophthalmology, vol. 2014, article id 273506, 7 pages, 2014. doi:10.1155/2014/273506

http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=s0036-46652015000200093&lng=en&tlng=en rev. inst. med. trop. s. paulo vol.57 no.2 são paulo mar./apr. 2015 http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/s0036-46652015000200001 review:toxoplasmosis in mexico: epidemiological situation in humans and animals by ivonne hernández-cortazar et al.,

http://www.hindawi.com/journals/jst/2011/971968/ michael j. brumlik, srilakshmi pandeswara, sara m. ludwig, kruthi murthy, and tyler j. curiel, “parasite mitogen-activated protein kinases as drug discovery targets to treat human protozoan pathogens,” journal of signal transduction, vol. 2011, article id 971968, 16 pages, 2011. doi:10.1155/2011/971968

http://europepmc.org/backend/ptpmcrender.fcgi?accid=pmc3914795&blobtype=pdf ouyang y, pleyer u, shao q, keane pa, stu¨biger n, et al. (2014) evaluation of cystoid change phenotypes in ocular toxoplasmosis using optical coherence tomography. plos one 9(2): e86626. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0086626

khairallah m, jelliti b, jenzeri s. emergent infectious uveitis. middle east afr j ophthalmol [serial online] 2009 [cited 2016 jul 25];16:225-38. available from: http://www.meajo.org/text.asp?2009/16/4/225/58426

http://parasitesandvectors.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/1756-3305-5-271 a systematic review and meta-analysis of toxoplasma gondiiinfection among the mexican population by ma de la luz galvan-ramirez et al., parasites & vectors20125:271 doi: 10.1186/1756-3305-5-271

http://journal.frontiersin.org/article/10.3389/fmicb.2014.00503/full review article front. microbiol., 09 october 2014 | http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fmicb.2014.00503the role of hormones on toxoplasma gondiiinfection: a systematic review by maría de la luz galván-ramírez

http://europepmc.org/backend/ptpmcrender.fcgi?accid=pmc4335039&blobtype=pdf : ngoungou eb, bhalla d, nzoghe a, dardé m-l, preux p-m (2015) toxoplasmosis and epilepsy— systematic review and meta analysis. plos negl trop dis 9(2): e0003525. doi:10.1371/journal.pntd.0003525

http://europepmc.org/backend/ptpmcrender.fcgi?accid=pmc2727001&blobtype=pdf hotez pj, kamath a (2009) neglected tropical diseases in sub-saharan africa: review of their prevalence, distribution, and disease burden. plos negl trop dis 3(8): e412. doi:10.1371/journal.pntd.0000412

http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=s1413-86702007000600017 braz j infect dis vol.11 no.6 salvador dec. 2007 http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/s1413-86702007000600017 case reports congenital toxoplasmosis infection in an infant born to an hiv-1-infected mother by maria letícia santos cruz et al.,

singh s. mother-to-child transmission and diagnosis of toxoplasma gondii infection during pregnancy. indian j med microbiol [serial online] 2003 [cited 2016 jul 25];21:69-76. available from: http://www.ijmm.org/text.asp?2003/21/2/69/7978

http://europepmc.org/backend/ptpmcrender.fcgi?accid=pmc3812028&blobtype=pdf tomavo s, slomianny c, meissner m, carruthers vb (2013) protein trafficking through the endosomal system prepares intracellular parasites for a home invasion. plos pathog 9(10): e1003629. doi:10.1371/journal.ppat.1003629

https://www.researchgate.net/publication/8223133_incidence_and_prevalence_of_toxoplasmosis_in_indian_pregnant_women_a_prospective_study incidence and prevalence of toxoplasmosis in indian pregnant women: a prospective study by samran singh et al., american journal of reproductive immunology (new york, n.y.: 1989) 52(4):276-83

 

Other articles:

http://www.vet.cornell.edu/fhc/health_information/brochure_toxo.cfm cornell university college of veterinary medicine toxoplasmosis

http://www.petmd.com/cat/conditions/infectious-parasitic/c_ct_toxoplasmosis pet md toxoplasmosis in cats

http://www.petmd.com/dog/conditions/infectious-parasitic/c_dg_toxoplasmosis pet md toxoplasmosis in dogs

http://icatcare.org/advice/cat-health/toxoplasmosis-and-cats international cat care toxoplasmosis and cats

http://www.merckvetmanual.com/mvm/generalized_conditions/toxoplasmosis/overview_of_toxoplasmosis.html merck veternary manuals overview of toxoplasmosis

http://www.peteducation.com/article.cfm?c=1+2134&aid=770 pet education toxoplasmosis (toxoplasma gondii) in cats

 

Presentations/quiz/newspaper articles:

http://www.theatlantic.com/magazine/archive/2012/03/how-your-cat-is-making-you-crazy/308873/ the atlantic how your cat is making you crazy

http://www.scientificamerican.com/article/fatal-attraction/ scientific american protozoa could be controlling your brain

http://www.medicaldaily.com/toxoplasma-gondii-parasite-cat-feces-linked-schizophrenia-and-other-mental-illness-337030 medical daily toxoplasma gondii, parasite in cat feces, linked to schizophrenia and other mental illness

http://www.businessinsider.in/the-truth-about-the-mind-controlling-parasite-you-can-get-from-your-cat/articleshow/45972463.cms business insider the truth about the mind-controlling parasite you can get from your cat

http://www.the-scientist.com/?articles.view/articleno/44107/title/treating-toxoplasmosis/ the scientist treating toxoplasmosis

http://www.cbsnews.com/news/cat-parasite-toxoplasma-gondii-linked-to-mental-illness-schizophrenia/ cbs news cat parasite linked to mental illness, schizophrenia

http://www.independent.co.uk/news/uk/home-news/beware-of-the-cat-britains-hidden-toxoplasma-problem-8102860.html independant beware of the cat: britain's hidden toxoplasma problem

 

Videos:

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=u9mu-fxskrg toxoplasmosis - plain and simple

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=hlkovvaeq88 toxoplasma gondii - life cycle and invasion

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=igbzja4twpw toxoplasmosis

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=3mvcq7ehf1q toxoplasmosis & toxoplasma gondii

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=wtokkdrr8qy toxoplasmosis transmission cycle

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=aokc02e9ipk toxoplasmosis: truth, fiction, and crazy cat ladies?

 

Please leave your comments:



Related Articles