Testicular torsion

Testicular torsion

Last Reviewed : 12/25/2020
Testicular torsion

Testicular torsion occurs when the spermatic cord (from which the testicle is suspended) twists, cutting off the testicle's blood supply, a condition called ischemia. The principal symptom is rapid onset of testicular pain. The most common underlying cause is acongenital malformation known as a "bell-clapper deformity" wherein the testis is inadequately affixed to the scrotum allowing it to move freely on its axis and susceptible to induced twisting of the cord and its vessels.

The diagnosis should usually be made on the presenting signs and symptoms and an urgent ultrasound should only be done when the diagnosis is unclear. Irreversible ischemia begins around six hours after onset and emergency diagnosis and treatment is required within this time to minimize the risk of testicle loss.

It is most common just after birth and during puberty.]It occurs in about 1 in 4,000 to 1 per 25,000 males per year before 25 years of age.

We researched this topic for you and found the following best online resources. They are categorized into basic, advanced, and research level based on the extent of information you need. You will be taken to the respective websites by pressing on the links below.


Basic information:

http://www.healthline.com/health/testicular-torsion health line torsion of testes

http://www.mayoclinic.org/diseases-conditions/testicular-torsion/basics/definition/con-20033130 mayoclinic testicular torsion

http://kidshealth.org/en/teens/torsion.html kids health testicular torsion

https://medlineplus.gov/ency/article/000517.htm medline plus testicular torsion

http://www.webmd.com/men/testicular-torsion web md testicular torsion

http://www.merckmanuals.com/professional/genitourinary-disorders/penile-and-scrotal-disorders/testicular-torsion merck manuals(professional version) testicular torsion

https://www.healthychildren.org/english/health-issues/conditions/genitourinary-tract/pages/testicular-torsion.aspx healthy children testicle pain & testicular torsion

http://www.nhs.uk/conditions/testicular-lumps-benign/pages/causes.aspx nhs uk testicular lumps and swellings - causes

http://my.clevelandclinic.org/services/urology-kidney/diseases-conditions/hic-testicular-torsion cleveland clinic testicular torsion

http://umm.edu/health/medical/ency/articles/testicular-torsion university of maryland medical center testicular torsion

http://familydoctor.org/familydoctor/en/diseases-conditions/testicular-torsion.html family doctor testicular torsion

https://www.betterhealth.vic.gov.au/health/conditionsandtreatments/testicle-injuries-and-conditions better health testicle injuries and conditions

http://www.msdmanuals.com/professional/genitourinary-disorders/penile-and-scrotal-disorders/testicular-torsion msd manuals(professional version) testicular torsion

http://www.nytimes.com/health/guides/disease/testicular-torsion/overview.html newyork times testicular torsion


Advanced information:

http://emedicine.medscape.com/article/2036003-overview medscape testicular torsion

http://www.emedicinehealth.com/testicular_torsion/article_em.htm emedicine health testicular torsion

http://patient.info/health/torsion-of-the-testis-leaflet patient testicular torsion

http://patient.info/in/doctor/torsion-of-the-testis-pro patient testicular torsion

http://www.medicalnewstoday.com/articles/190514.php medical news today what is testicular torsion? what causes testicular torsion?

http://www.aafp.org/afp/2013/1215/p835.html testicular torsion: diagnosis, evaluation, and management by victoria j. sharp, md, mba, and kathleen kieran, md, university of iowa carver college of medicine, iowa city, iowa angela m. arlen, md, children's healthcare of atlanta and emory university, atlanta, georgia am fam physician. 2013 dec 15;88(12):835-840.

http://radiopaedia.org/articles/testicular-torsion radiopedia testicular torsion

http://www.emdocs.net/testicular-torsion-pearls-and-pitfalls/ emdocs testicular torsion: pearls and pitfalls

https://pedclerk.bsd.uchicago.edu/page/testicular-torsion peadiatrics clerckship testicular torsion

http://www.urology-textbook.com/testicular-torsion.html urology textbook online testicular torsion

http://www.fpnotebook.com/uro/testes/tstclrtrsn.htm family practise note book testicular torsion

http://www.sonoguide.com/smparts_testicular.html sono guide testicular torsion

http://www.dovemed.com/diseases-conditions/testicular-torsion/ dove med testicular torsion

http://www.medicinenet.com/testicular_disorders/article.htm medicine net testicular pain (pain in the testicles)

https://sonoworld.com/casedetails/partial_testicular_torsion.aspx?modulecategoryid=629 sono world partial testicular torsion



http://www.hindawi.com/journals/criu/2016/6017636/ satoshi funada, ryosuke ikeuchi, toru yoshida, and takehiko segawa, “seminoma in a man with russell-silver syndrome presenting with testicular torsion,” case reports in urology, vol. 2016, article id 6017636, 3 pages, 2016. doi:10.1155/2016/6017636

papparella a, nino f, coppola s, parmeggiani p. an unusual case of intra-abdominal testicular torsion: role of laparoscopy. afr j paediatr surg [serial online] 2013 [cited 2016 jul 24];10:29-31. available from: http://www.afrjpaedsurg.org/text.asp?2013/10/1/29/109386

http://www.jebmh.com/data_pdf/09%20-%20anand%20-%204.pdf anand morri, p. v. sri ramachandra murthy, siva sankar rao kurra. “torsion testis: role of color doppler: a study of 50 cases”. journal of evidence based medicine and healthcare; volume 2, issue 40, october 05, 2015; page: 6635-6638, doi: 10.18410/jebmh/2015/905

http://www.hindawi.com/journals/criu/2014/212914/ bioku muftau jimoh, eziechila bessie chinwe, adewumi oluwafemi adebisi, igwilo chinwe ifeoma, maduka ogechi, and aiyekomogbon joshua oluwafemi, “idiopathic scrotal hematoma in neonate: a case report and review of the literature,” case reports in urology, vol. 2014, article id 212914, 3 pages, 2014. doi:10.1155/2014/212914

http://www.jemds.com/data_pdf/naushad%20ali-2%20final.pdf naushad ali n. malagi, rathinasamy, nedunchelian, t.r.k madhavan. “usefulness of ultrasound in acute scrotum”. journal of evolution of medical and dental sciences 2014; vol 3, issue 01, january 06; page: 235-240.

http://europepmc.org/backend/ptpmcrender.fcgi?accid=pmc4575189&blobtype=pdf : sun z, xie m, xiang f, song y, yu c,zhang y, et al. (2015) utility of real-time shear wave elastography in the assessment of testicular torsion. plos one 10(9): e0138523. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0138523

http://www.hindawi.com/journals/criu/2013/485165/ e. arpali and a. tok, “a patient presenting with concurrent testis torsion and epididymal leiomyoma,”case reports in urology, vol. 2013, article id 485165, 2 pages, 2013. doi:10.1155/2013/485165

http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=s1677-55382006000400008 int. braz j urol. vol.32 no.4 rio de janeiro july/aug. 2006 http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/s1677-55382006000400008 clinical urology:association between testicular microlithiasis, testicular cancer, cryptorchidism and history of ascending testis by stamatiou konstantinos et al.,

http://www.hindawi.com/journals/isrn/2013/351309/ fahimeh kazemi rashed, babollah ghasemi, hamid deldade mogaddam, and mehran mesgari, “the effect of erythropoietin on ischemia/reperfusion injury after testicular torsion/detorsion: a randomized experimental study,” isrn urology, vol. 2013, article id 351309, 4 pages, 2013. doi:10.1155/2013/351309

http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=s1677-55382007000100013 int. braz j urol. vol.33 no.1 rio de janeiro jan./feb. 2007 http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/s1677-55382007000100013 case report:painless inter epididymal testicular torsion of the spermatic cord by salomon v. romano; haime s. hernan; norberto fredotovich

http://www.mrcindia.org/journal/issues/482119.pdf j vector borne dis 48, june 2011, pp. 119–121 case reports:genital filariasis masquerading as testicular torsion by pankaj kumar garg et al.,

arkar rr, umap ra, jadhav s. prenatal diagnosis of cryptorchid testicular teratoma. indian j radiol imaging [serial online] 2016 [cited 2016 jul 24];26:67-9. available from: http://www.ijri.org/text.asp?2016/26/1/67/178334


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Presentations/quiz/newspaper articles:

http://www.slideshare.net/ameenrageh/testicular-torsion1 testicular torsion

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