Stem cell

Stem cell

Last Reviewed : 12/25/2020
Stem cell

Stem cells are undifferentiated biological cells that can differentiate into specialized cells and can divide (through mitosis) to produce more stem cells. They are found in multicellular organisms. In mammals, there are two broad types of stem cells: embryonic stem cells, which are isolated from the inner cell mass of blastocysts, and adult stem cells, which are found in various tissues. In adult organisms, stem cells and progenitor cells act as a repair system for the body, replenishing adult tissues. In a developing embryo, stem cells can differentiate into all the specialized cells—ectoderm, endoderm and mesoderm —but also maintain the normal turnover of regenerative organs, such as blood, skin, or intestinal tissues.

There are three known accessible sources of autologous adult stem cells in humans: Bone marrow, adipose tissue (lipid cells), blood. Stem cells can also be taken from umbilical cord blood just after birth. Of all stem cell types, autologous harvesting involves the least risk. By definition, autologous cells are obtained from one's own body, just as one may bank his or her own blood for elective surgical procedures. Adult stem cells are frequently used in various medical therapies (e.g., bone marrow transplantation). Stem cells can now be artificially grown and transformed (differentiated) into specialized cell types with characteristics consistent with cells of various tissues such as muscles or nerves. Embryonic cell lines and autologous embryonic stem cells generated through somatic cell nuclear transfer or dedifferentiation have also been proposed as promising candidates for future therapies.

We researched this topic for you and found the following best online resources. They are categorized into basic, advanced, and research level based on the extent of information you need. You will be taken to the respective websites by pressing on the links below.


Basic information: stem cells. stem cell basics... cells international society for stem cell research. stem cell facts. cell research . national academy of sciences, engineering and medicine.understanding stem cells.


Advanced information: national institute of health.stem cell basics i. mayo clinic.stem cells: what they are and what they do medicine net.stem cells by melissa conrad stöppler, md cell patient.stem cell transplant directory of open access journals.pluripotency and its layers of complexity by ooi jolene et al. cell regeneration. 2012;1(1)7 doi 10.1186/2045-9769-1-7 directory of open access journals.molecular imaging of stem cells: tracking survival, biodistribution, tumorigenicity, and immunogenicity by eugene gu et al.theranostics. 2012;2(1)335-345 directory of open access journals.employment of a «side population» approach to stem cell isolation in normal and tumor tissues by o. r. tsinkalovsky et al.


Research: central science.mucin-inspired thermoresponsive synthetic hydrogels induce stasis in human pluripotent stem cells and human embryos by irene canton et al. acs cent. sci., 2016, 2 (2), pp 65–74doi: 10.1021/acscentsci.5b00370 the journal of clinical investigation. differentiation of hypothalamic-like neurons from human pluripotent stem cells by liheng wang et al. citation information: j clin invest. 2015;125(2):796-808. doi:10.1172/jci79220. lancet.human neural stem cells in patients with chronic ischaemic stroke (pisces): a phase 1, first-in-man study by dheerajkalladka et al. doi: heart association journals. stem cells for myocardial regeneration by donald orlic et al. circulation research. 2002;91:1092-1102doi: marks quiescent hair follicle bulge stem cells that are maintained by autocrinewnt/ß-catenin signaling by xinhong lima et al. e1498–e1505, doi: 10.1073/pnas.1601599113 journal of american society of nephrology. rapid and efficient differentiation of human pluripotent stem cells into intermediate mesoderm that forms tubules expressing kidney proximal tubular markers by albert q. lam et al. jasn june 2014 vol. 25 no. 6 1211-1225doi: 10.1681/asn.2013080831 blood journal.hematopoietic stem cells: concepts, definitions, and the new reality by connie j. eaves. blood 2015 125:2605-2613; doi:10.1182/blood-2014-12-570200 directory of open access journals.tapping stem cells to target amd: challenges and prospects by caroline brandl et al. journal of clinical medicine. 2015;4(2)282-303 doi 10.3390/jcm4020282 directory of open access to improve the survival of transplanted mesenchymal stem cell in ischemic heart?by liangpeng li et al. stem cells international. 2016;2016 doi 10.1155/2016/9682757 directory of open access journals.human induced pluripotent stem cell-derived cardiomyocytes afford new opportunities in inherited cardiovascular disease modeling by daniel r. bayzigitov et al. cardiology research and practice. 2016;2016 doi 10.1155/2016/3582380


Related topics: lab.production of pluripotentstem cells by oocyte-assistedreprogramming and development.mammary stem cells and the differentiation hierarchy: current status and perspectives by jane e. visvader et al. genes & dev. 2014. 28: 1143-1158. doi: 10.1101/gad.242511.114 chest journals.a placebo-controlled, randomized trial of mesenchymal stem cells in copd by daniel j. weiss et al. chest. 2013;143(6):1590-1598. doi:10.1378/chest.12-2094 directory of open access journals.induced pluripotent stem cell derived cardiomyocytes as models for cardiac arrhythmias by maaikeehoekstra et al. frontiers in physiology. 2012;3 doi 10.3389/fphys.2012.00346 directory of open access journals.generation and characterization of erythroid cells from human embryonic stem cells and induced pluripotent stem cells: an overview by kai-hsin chang et al. stem cells international. 2011;2011 doi 10.4061/2011/791604 directory of open access journals.stem cell therapy in oral and maxillofacial region: an overview by p m sunil et al. journal of oral and maxillofacial pathology. 2012;16(1)58-63 doi 10.4103/0973-029x.92975 directory of open access journals.stem cell therapy for type 1 diabetes mellitus: a review of recent clinical trials by couri carlos et al.diabetology& metabolic syndrome. 2009;1(1)19 doi 10.1186/1758-5996-1-19 directory of open access journals.adipose derived mesenchymal stem cells in wound healing: a clinical review by gunalpuzun et al. disease and molecular medicine. 2014;2(4)57-64 doi 10.5455/dmm.20150120123357 directory of open access journals.calcium phosphate scaffolds combined with bone morphogenetic proteins or mesenchymal stem cells in bone tissue engineering by han sun et al. chinese medical journal. 2015;128(8)1121-1127 doi 10.4103/0366-6999.155121 directory of open access journals.bone marrow-derived cells as a therapeutic approach to optic nerve diseases by louise a. mesentier-louro et al. stem cells international. 2016;2016 doi 10.1155/2016/5078619


Other articles: the royal society publishing. present and future challenges of induced pluripotent stem cells by mari ohnuki, kazutoshi takahashi. published 28 september 2015.doi: 10.1098/rstb.2014.0367 biochemical journal.emerging use of stem cells in regenerative medicine by adrian k. k. teo et al. biochemical journal may 15, 2010, 428 (1) 11-23; doi: 10.1042/bj20100102 directory of open access journals.oxidative stress, bone marrow failure, and genome instability in hematopoietic stem cells by christine richardson et al. international journal of molecular sciences. 2015;16(2)2366-2385 doi 10.3390/ijms16022366 directory of open access journals.advances in retinal stem cell biology by andrea s viczian.journal of ophthalmic & vision research. 2013;8(2)147-159 directory of open access journals.glioblastoma-initiating cells: relationship with neural stem cells and the micro-environment by nicolas goffart et al. cancers. 2013;5(3)1049-1071 doi 10.3390/cancers5031049 directory of open access journals.the use of stem cells to model amyotrophic lateral sclerosis and frontotemporal dementia: from basic research to regenerative medicinebyerin c. hedges et al. stem cells international. 2016;2016 doi 10.1155/2016/9279516 directory of open access journals.human induced pluripotent stem cells from basic research to potential clinical applications in cancer by teresa de souza fernandez et al.biomed research international. 2013;2013 doi 10.1155/2013/430290 directory of open access journals.genome organization, instabilities, stem cells, and cancer by senthil kumar pazhanisamyetaljournal of stem cells and regenerative medicine. 2009;5(1)11-22 directory of open access journals.from single nucleotide polymorphisms to constant immunosuppression: mesenchymal stem cell therapy for autoimmune diseases by raghavanchinnadurai et al.biomed research international. 2013;2013 doi 10.1155/2013/929842 directory of open access journals.prospect of induced pluripotent stem cell genetic repair to cure genetic diseases by jeanne adiwinatapawitan.stem cells international. 2012;2012 doi 10.1155/2012/498197


Other useful information: canadian stem cell foundation. stem cells. a closer look at stem cells cell stem cell stem cell research facts. stem cell australia international society for stem cell research’s stem cell agency stem cells portal. cambridge stem cell institute. the new york stem cell foundation.


Related vedios/presentations: genetics.the nature of stem cells are stem cells? how can they be used for medical benefit? khan academy.embryonic stem cells biology: stem cells, cloning and regeneration

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