Stem cells are undifferentiated biological cells that can differentiate into specialized cells and can divide (through mitosis) to produce more stem cells. They are found in multicellular organisms. In mammals, there are two broad types of stem cells: embryonic stem cells, which are isolated from the inner cell mass of blastocysts, and adult stem cells, which are found in various tissues. In adult organisms, stem cells and progenitor cells act as a repair system for the body, replenishing adult tissues. In a developing embryo, stem cells can differentiate into all the specialized cells—ectoderm, endoderm and mesoderm —but also maintain the normal turnover of regenerative organs, such as blood, skin, or intestinal tissues.
There are three known accessible sources of autologous adult stem cells in humans: Bone marrow, adipose tissue (lipid cells), blood. Stem cells can also be taken from umbilical cord blood just after birth. Of all stem cell types, autologous harvesting involves the least risk. By definition, autologous cells are obtained from one's own body, just as one may bank his or her own blood for elective surgical procedures. Adult stem cells are frequently used in various medical therapies (e.g., bone marrow transplantation). Stem cells can now be artificially grown and transformed (differentiated) into specialized cell types with characteristics consistent with cells of various tissues such as muscles or nerves. Embryonic cell lines and autologous embryonic stem cells generated through somatic cell nuclear transfer or dedifferentiation have also been proposed as promising candidates for future therapies.
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http://pubs.acs.org/doi/full/10.1021/acscentsci.5b00370acs central science.mucin-inspired thermoresponsive synthetic hydrogels induce stasis in human pluripotent stem cells and human embryos by irene canton et al. acs cent. sci., 2016, 2 (2), pp 65–74doi: 10.1021/acscentsci.5b00370
https://www.jci.org/articles/view/79220 the journal of clinical investigation. differentiation of hypothalamic-like neurons from human pluripotent stem cells by liheng wang et al. citation information: j clin invest. 2015;125(2):796-808. doi:10.1172/jci79220.
http://jasn.asnjournals.org/content/25/6/1211.abstract journal of american society of nephrology. rapid and efficient differentiation of human pluripotent stem cells into intermediate mesoderm that forms tubules expressing kidney proximal tubular markers by albert q. lam et al. jasn june 2014 vol. 25 no. 6 1211-1225doi: 10.1681/asn.2013080831
https://doaj.org/article/05700dd003044464acfada43c55990b7 directory of open access journals.human induced pluripotent stem cell-derived cardiomyocytes afford new opportunities in inherited cardiovascular disease modeling by daniel r. bayzigitov et al. cardiology research and practice. 2016;2016 doi 10.1155/2016/3582380
http://genesdev.cshlp.org/content/28/11/1143.fullgenes and development.mammary stem cells and the differentiation hierarchy: current status and perspectives by jane e. visvader et al. genes & dev. 2014. 28: 1143-1158. doi: 10.1101/gad.242511.114
https://doaj.org/article/07174f1da4f44428af941a93fc083295 directory of open access journals.generation and characterization of erythroid cells from human embryonic stem cells and induced pluripotent stem cells: an overview by kai-hsin chang et al. stem cells international. 2011;2011 doi 10.4061/2011/791604
https://doaj.org/article/058ae23506dd40d699827178ef4f52b0 directory of open access journals.calcium phosphate scaffolds combined with bone morphogenetic proteins or mesenchymal stem cells in bone tissue engineering by han sun et al. chinese medical journal. 2015;128(8)1121-1127 doi 10.4103/0366-6999.155121
http://www.biochemj.org/content/428/1/11 biochemical journal.emerging use of stem cells in regenerative medicine by adrian k. k. teo et al. biochemical journal may 15, 2010, 428 (1) 11-23; doi: 10.1042/bj20100102
https://doaj.org/article/055f0e3f932a49b9b8b27f94f584ae43 directory of open access journals.oxidative stress, bone marrow failure, and genome instability in hematopoietic stem cells by christine richardson et al. international journal of molecular sciences. 2015;16(2)2366-2385 doi 10.3390/ijms16022366
https://doaj.org/article/089417ad9bb54598bd05ce7d55ae258a directory of open access journals.the use of stem cells to model amyotrophic lateral sclerosis and frontotemporal dementia: from basic research to regenerative medicinebyerin c. hedges et al. stem cells international. 2016;2016 doi 10.1155/2016/9279516
https://doaj.org/article/079f1712728149c593439f29c5d0202a directory of open access journals.human induced pluripotent stem cells from basic research to potential clinical applications in cancer by teresa de souza fernandez et al.biomed research international. 2013;2013 doi 10.1155/2013/430290
https://doaj.org/article/020f4df0118f4de7aaccf454fd83cb0d directory of open access journals.from single nucleotide polymorphisms to constant immunosuppression: mesenchymal stem cell therapy for autoimmune diseases by raghavanchinnadurai et al.biomed research international. 2013;2013 doi 10.1155/2013/929842