Sjogren syndrome;Keratonconjuntivitis sicca;Sicca syndrome

Sjogren syndrome;Keratonconjuntivitis sicca;Sicca syndrome

Last Reviewed : 12/25/2020
Sjogren syndrome;Keratonconjuntivitis sicca;Sicca syndrome

Sjogren's syndrome (SjS, SS) is a long term autoimmune disease in which the moisture-producing glands of the body are affected. This results primarily in the development of a dry mouth and dry eyes. Other symptoms can include dry skin, a chronic cough, vaginal dryness, numbness in the arms and legs, feeling tired, muscle and joint pains, and thyroid problems. Those affected are at an increased risk (5%) of lymphoma.

While the exact cause is unclear it is believed to involve a combination of genetics and an environmental trigger such as exposure to a virus or bacteria. It can occur independently of other health problems (primary Sjögren's syndrome) or as a result of anotherconnective tissue disorder (secondary Sjögren's syndrome). The inflammation that results progressively damages the glands. Diagnosis is by biopsy of moisture producing glands and blood tests looking for specific antibodies. On biopsy there is typicallylymphocyte within the glands.

Treatment is directed at the person's symptom. For dry eyes artificial tears, medications to reduce inflammation, or surgery to shut the tear ducts may be tried. For a dry mouth chewing gum, sipping water, or a saliva substitute may be used. In those with joint or muscle pain ibuprofen may be used. Medications that can cause dryness may also be stopped such as antihistamines.

The disease was described in 1933 by Henrik Sjögren after whom it is named; however, a number of earlier description of people with the symptoms exist. Between 0.2% and 1.2% of the population are affected, with half having the primary form and half the secondary form. Females are affected about ten times as often as males and it commonly begins in middle age. Anyone; however, can be affected. Among those without other autoimmune disorders, life expectancy is unchanged.

We researched this topic for you and found the following best online resources. They are categorized into basic, advanced, and research level based on the extent of information you need. You will be taken to the respective websites by pressing on the links below.


Basic information: mayoclinic sjogren's syndrome nhs uk sjogren's syndrome national institute of arthritis and musculoskeletal and skin diseases sjogren's syndrome web md sjogren's syndrome web md arthritis and sjögren's syndrome better health sjogren’s syndrome health line sjogren's syndrome arthritis foundation sjögren’s syndrome causes cleveland clinic sjogren's syndrome medline plus sjogren's syndrome everyday health sjogren's syndrome lab tests online sjogren's syndrome cedar sinai sjogren's syndrome health central sjogren's syndrome's-syndrome/ health service executive sjogren's syndrome university of maryland medical center sjogren's syndrome


Advanced information: medicine net sjogren's syndrome medscape sjogren syndrome medical news today what is sjogren's syndrome? what causes sjogren's syndrome? patient sjögren's syndrome emedicine health sjogren's syndrome radiopedia sjogren's syndrome dermnet nz sjogren's syndrome family practise note book sjogren's syndrome upto date sjögren's syndrome overview diagnosis and management of sjögren syndrome by paul kruszka, lcdr, usphs, u.s. coast guard yard, baltimore, maryland.,robert j. o’brian, lcdr, mc, usn, national naval medical center, bethesda, maryland am fam physician. 2009 mar 15;79(6):465-470's_syndrome physio pedia sjogren's syndrome irish health sjogren's syndrome-often underdiagnosed's-syndrome-diet.html news health advisor sjogren's syndrome diet diagnose me sjogren's syndrome: overview



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haroon n, nisha r s, chandran v, bharadwaj a. pulmonary hypertension not a major feature of early mixed connective tissue disease: a prospective clinicoserological study. j postgrad med [serial online] 2005 [cited 2016 jul 24];51:104-8. available from:

uppal m, srinivas c r, thowfeeq k t. sjogren-larsson syndrome: report of two cases. indian j dermatol venereol leprol [serial online] 2004 [cited 2016 jul 24];70:110-1. available from: chen c-h, chen h-c, chang c-c, peng yj,lee c-h, shieh y-s, et al. (2015) growth arrestspecific 6 protein in patients with sjögren syndrome:determination of the plasma level and expression in the labial salivary gland. plos one 10(10):e0139955. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0139955

kumar sp. a rare initial neurological presentation of sjogren's syndrome. j neurosci rural pract [serial online] 2015 [cited 2016 jul 24];6:127. available from: deng c, hu c, chen s, li j, wen x, wu z,et al. (2015) meta-analysis of anti-muscarinic receptor type 3 antibodies for the diagnosis of sjögren syndrome. plos one 10(1): e0116744. doi:10.1371/ journal.pone.0116744 clinical case study article front. oncol., 06 august 2015 | sjögren syndrome complicated by mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue lymphoma and lymphocytic interstitial pneumonia by fatma ahmed et al.,

khanna d, shrivastava a. suppurative dacroadenitis causing ocular sicca syndrome in classic wegener's granulomatosis. indian j ophthalmol [serial online] 2011 [cited 2016 jul 24];59:151-3. available from:

el ati z, fatma lb, boulahya g, rais l, krid m, smaoui w, maiz hb, beji s, zouaghi k, moussa fb. osteomalacia complicating renal tubular acidosis in association with sjogren's syndrome. saudi j kidney dis transpl [serial online] 2014 [cited 2016 jul 24];25:1072-7. available from:

yadav r, krishnan p, kulkarni gb, yasha t c, kumar m v, nagraja d. spectrum of neuro-sjogren's syndrome in a tertiary care center in south india. ann indian acad neurol [serial online] 2011 [cited 2016 jul 24];14:111-5. available from:

dhanuka a k, gupta m. sjogren - larsson syndrome : a case report. neurol india [serial online] 2002 [cited 2016 jul 24];50:371. available from:

tiwari s c, dhingra k, khan k m, malviya a n, singh m, gehlot d k. sjogren's syndrome in association with retinitis pigmentosa-report of an unusual case. indian j ophthalmol [serial online] 1983 [cited 2016 jul 24];31:81-3. available from: morreale m, marchione p, giacomini p, pontecorvo s, marianetti m, et al. (2014) neurological involvement in primary sjo¨gren syndrome: a focus on central nervous system. plos one 9(1): e84605. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0084605

ghorbel i b, feki n b, salem t b, hamzaoui a, khanfir m, lamloum m, miled m, houman m h. microscopic polyangiitis associated with primary biliary cirrhosis, sjogren's syndrome and hashimoto's thyroiditis. saudi j kidney dis transpl [serial online] 2015 [cited 2016 jul 24];26:359-62. available from:


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Other helpful resources(support groups): sjogrens india the british sjogren syndrome association sjogren syndrome society the australian sjogren syndrome association


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Presentations/quiz/newspaper articles: land what is sjögren’s syndrome? an expert explains venus williams’ diagnosis better india heard of sjögren’s syndrome? these women are ‘living well’ with it and helping others do the same! daily mail 'i won't let it beat me:' venus williams opens up about being diagnosed with incurable sjogren's syndrome at 31

read more: new indian express sjogren’s syndrome not a rarity among indians, finds study eurekalert females with primary sjogren's syndrome more likely to experience sexual dysfunction

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