Schizophrenia is a mental disorder characterized by abnormal social behavior and failure to understand reality. Common symptoms include false beliefs, unclear or confused thinking, hearing voices, reduced social engagement and emotional expression, and a lack of motivation. People with schizophrenia often have additional mental health problems such as anxiety disorders, major depressive illness or substance use disorder. Symptoms typically come on gradually, begin in young adulthood, and last a long time.
The causes of schizophrenia include environmental and genetic factors. Possible environmental factors include being raised in a city, cannabis use, certain infections, parental age, and poor nutrition during pregnancy. Genetic factors include a variety of common and rare genetic variants. Diagnosis is based on observed behavior and the person's reported experiences. During diagnosis a person's culture must also be taken into account. As of 2013 there is no objective test. Schizophrenia does not imply a "split personality" or "multiple personality disorder" — a condition with which it is often confused in public perception.
The mainstay of treatment is antipsychotic medication along with counselling, job training, and social rehabilitation. It is unclear if typical or atypical antipsychotics are better. In those who do not improve with other antipsychotics, clozapine may be used. In more serious cases—where there is risk to self or others—involuntary hospitalization may be necessary, although hospital stays are now shorter and less frequent than they once were.
About 0.3–0.7% of people are affected by schizophrenia during their lifetime. In 2013 there was estimated to be 23.6 million cases globally. Males are more often affected than females. About 20% of people do well and a few recover completely. Social problems, such as long-term unemployment, poverty, and homelessness are common. The average life expectancyof people with the disorder is ten to twenty-five years less than the average This is the result of increased physical health problems and a higher suicide rate (about 5%).In 2013 an estimated 16,000 people died from behavior related to, or caused by, schizophrenia.
We researched this topic for you and found the following best online resources. They are categorized into basic, advanced, and research level based on the extent of information you need. You will be taken to the respective websites by pressing on the links below.