Sarcoidosis, also called sarcoid, is a disease involving abnormal collections of inflammatory cells that form lumps known asgranulomas. The disease usually begins in the lungs, skin, or lymph nodes. Less commonly affected are the eyes, liver, heart, and brain. Any organ, however, can be affected. The signs and symptoms depends on the organ involved. Often there are no, or only mild, symptoms. When it affects the lungs there may be wheezing, cough, shortness of breath, or chest pain. Some may have Lofgren's syndrome in which there is fever, large lymph nodes, arthritis, and a rash known as erythema nodosum.
The cause of sarcoidosis is unknown. Some believe it may be due to an immune reaction to a trigger such as an infection or chemicals in those who are genetically predisposed. Those with affected family members are at greater risk. Diagnosis is partly based on signs and symptoms, which may be supported by biopsy. Findings that make it likely include large lymph nodes at the root of the lung on both sides, high blood calcium with a normal parathyroid hormone level, or elevated levels of angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) in the blood. The diagnosis should only be made after excluding other possible causes of similar symptoms such astuberculosis.
Many people clear up without any treatment within a few years. However some may have long term or severe disease. Some symptoms may be improved with the use of anti-inflammatory drugs such as ibuprofen. In cases where the condition causes significant health problems steroids such as prednisone are indicated. Alternatively, medications such as methotrexate, chloroquine, or azathioprine may occasionally be used in an effort to decrease the side effects of steroids. The risk of death is between one and seven percent. There is a less than five percent chance of the disease returning in someone who has had it previously.
In 2013 pulmonary sarcoidosis and interstitial lung disease affected 595,000 people globally. These two diseases resulted in 471,000 deaths. It is most common in Scandinavians but occurs in all parts of the world. In the United States risk is greater among black as opposed to white people. It usually begins between the ages of 20–50. It occurs more often in women than men. Sarcoidosis was first described in 1877 by the English doctor Jonathan Hutchinson as a non painful skin disease.
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http://err.ersjournals.com/content/25/140/141.full management of sarcoidosis in clinical practice by florence jeny, diane bouvry, olivia freynet, michael soussan, michel brauner, carole planes, hilario nunes, dominique valeyre european respiratory review 2016 25: 141-150; doi: 10.1183/16000617.0013-2016
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http://www.hindawi.com/journals/joph/2014/236905/ andrea d. birnbaum and lana m. rifkin, “sarcoidosis: sex-dependent variations in presentation and management,” journal of ophthalmology, vol. 2014, article id 236905, 7 pages, 2014. doi:10.1155/2014/236905
http://www.hindawi.com/journals/criot/2016/3642735/ keishi fujiwara, yasushi furuta, and satoshi fukuda, “two cases of heerfordt’s syndrome: a rare manifestation of sarcoidosis,” case reports in otolaryngology, vol. 2016, article id 3642735, 4 pages, 2016. doi:10.1155/2016/3642735
kasliwal mk, harbhajanka a, nag s, o'toole je. isolated spinal neurosarcoidosis: an enigmatic intramedullary spinal cord pathology-case report and review of the literature. j craniovert jun spine [serial online] 2013 [cited 2016 jul 24];4:76-81. available from: http://www.jcvjs.com/text.asp?2013/4/2/76/128536
http://www.hindawi.com/journals/crirh/2013/706738/ creticus p. marak, narendrakumar alappan, amit chopra, olena dorokhova, sumita sinha, and achuta k. guddati, “uterine sarcoidosis: a rare extrapulmonary site of sarcoidosis,” case reports in rheumatology, vol. 2013, article id 706738, 5 pages, 2013. doi:10.1155/2013/706738
http://erj.ersjournals.com/content/39/6/1520 management of end-stage sarcoidosis: pulmonary hypertension and lung transplantation by oksana a. shlobin, steven d. nathan european respiratory journal 2012 39: 1520-1533; doi: 10.1183/09031936.00175511