Last Reviewed : 12/25/2020

Sarcoidosis, also called sarcoid, is a disease involving abnormal collections of inflammatory cells that form lumps known asgranulomas. The disease usually begins in the lungs, skin, or lymph nodes. Less commonly affected are the eyes, liver, heart, and brain. Any organ, however, can be affected. The signs and symptoms depends on the organ involved. Often there are no, or only mild, symptoms. When it affects the lungs there may be wheezing, cough, shortness of breath, or chest pain. Some may have Lofgren's syndrome in which there is fever, large lymph nodes, arthritis, and a rash known as erythema nodosum.

The cause of sarcoidosis is unknown. Some believe it may be due to an immune reaction to a trigger such as an infection or chemicals in those who are genetically predisposed. Those with affected family members are at greater risk. Diagnosis is partly based on signs and symptoms, which may be supported by biopsy. Findings that make it likely include large lymph nodes at the root of the lung on both sides, high blood calcium with a normal parathyroid hormone level, or elevated levels of angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) in the blood. The diagnosis should only be made after excluding other possible causes of similar symptoms such astuberculosis.

Many people clear up without any treatment within a few years. However some may have long term or severe disease. Some symptoms may be improved with the use of anti-inflammatory drugs such as ibuprofen. In cases where the condition causes significant health problems steroids such as prednisone are indicated. Alternatively, medications such as methotrexate, chloroquine, or azathioprine may occasionally be used in an effort to decrease the side effects of steroids.[9] The risk of death is between one and seven percent. There is a less than five percent chance of the disease returning in someone who has had it previously.

In 2013 pulmonary sarcoidosis and interstitial lung disease affected 595,000 people globally. These two diseases resulted in 471,000 deaths. It is most common in Scandinavians but occurs in all parts of the world. In the United States risk is greater among black as opposed to white people. It usually begins between the ages of 20–50. It occurs more often in women than men. Sarcoidosis was first described in 1877 by the English doctor Jonathan Hutchinson as a non painful skin disease.

We researched this topic for you and found the following best online resources. They are categorized into basic, advanced, and research level based on the extent of information you need. You will be taken to the respective websites by pressing on the links below.


Basic information: web md sarcoidosis health line sarcoidosis mayo clinic sarcoidosis nhs uk sarcoidosis national heart lung and blood institute sarcoidosis cleveland clinic sarcoidosis better health sarcoidosis family doctor sarcoidosis university of maryland medical center sarcoidosis


Advanced information: medscape sarcoidosis medicine net sarcoidosis merck manuals(professional version) sarcoidosis dermnet nz sarcoidosis patient sarcoidosis cleveland clinic sarcoidosis radiopedia sarcoidosis radiopedia sarcoidosis: pulmonary and mediastinal manifestations emedicine health sarcoidosis upto date patient information: sarcoidosis (beyond the basics) health communities sarcoidosis news medical net sarcoidosis prognosis


Research: daniel sánchez-cano, josé luis callejas-rubio, ricardo ruiz-villaverde, raquel ríos-fernández, and norberto ortego-centeno, “off-label uses of anti-tnf therapy in three frequent disorders: behçet’s disease, sarcoidosis, and noninfectious uveitis,” mediators of inflammation, vol. 2013, article id 286857, 10 pages, 2013. doi:10.1155/2013/286857

al-khouzaie th, al-tawfiq ja, al subhi fm. sarcoidosis in the eastern region of saudi arabia. ann thorac med [serial online] 2011 [cited 2016 jul 24];6:22-4. available from: anupam bansal and rupali drewek, “sarcoidosis and histoplasmosis: is one a consequence of the other? a case report and review of the literature,” case reports in rheumatology, vol. 2015, article id 108459, 5 pages, 2015. doi:10.1155/2015/108459 management of sarcoidosis in clinical practice by florence jeny, diane bouvry, olivia freynet, michael soussan, michel brauner, carole planes, hilario nunes, dominique valeyre european respiratory review 2016 25: 141-150; doi: 10.1183/16000617.0013-2016 disseminated nontuberculous infections with mycobacterium genavense during sarcoidosis by h. dumouchel-champagne, c. charlier-woerther, a. boibieux, m. ffrench, g. carret, c. chidiac, d. peyramond, f. ader european respiratory review 2009 18: 299-301; doi: 10.1183/09059180.00002209

al-jahdali h, rajiah p, koteyar ss, allen c, khan an. atypical radiological manifestations of thoracic sarcoidosis: a review and pictorial essay. ann thorac med [serial online] 2013 [cited 2016 jul 24];8:186-96. available from: wei sheng joshua loke, cristan herbert, and paul s. thomas, “sarcoidosis: immunopathogenesis and immunological markers,” international journal of chronic diseases, vol. 2013, article id 928601, 13 pages, 2013. doi:10.1155/2013/928601

shah j r, hede j, mathur r s. diagnostic criteria of tuberculous sarcoidosis. lung india [serial online] 2009 [cited 2016 jul 24];26:86-8. available from: andrea d. birnbaum and lana m. rifkin, “sarcoidosis: sex-dependent variations in presentation and management,” journal of ophthalmology, vol. 2014, article id 236905, 7 pages, 2014. doi:10.1155/2014/236905 keishi fujiwara, yasushi furuta, and satoshi fukuda, “two cases of heerfordt’s syndrome: a rare manifestation of sarcoidosis,” case reports in otolaryngology, vol. 2016, article id 3642735, 4 pages, 2016. doi:10.1155/2016/3642735

kasliwal mk, harbhajanka a, nag s, o'toole je. isolated spinal neurosarcoidosis: an enigmatic intramedullary spinal cord pathology-case report and review of the literature. j craniovert jun spine [serial online] 2013 [cited 2016 jul 24];4:76-81. available from: creticus p. marak, narendrakumar alappan, amit chopra, olena dorokhova, sumita sinha, and achuta k. guddati, “uterine sarcoidosis: a rare extrapulmonary site of sarcoidosis,” case reports in rheumatology, vol. 2013, article id 706738, 5 pages, 2013. doi:10.1155/2013/706738

kumar s, verma sk, singh r, prasad r. hemorrhagic pleural effusion secondary to sarcoidosis: a brief review. ann thorac med [serial online] 2009 [cited 2016 jul 24];4:27-31. available from: makoto orii, toshio imanishi, and takashi akasaka, “assessment of cardiac sarcoidosis with advanced imaging modalities,” biomed research international, vol. 2014, article id 897956, 15 pages, 2014. doi:10.1155/2014/897956 sarcoidosis michael c. iannuzzi, m.d., benjamin a. rybicki, ph.d., and alvin s. teirstein, m.d. n engl j med 2007; 357:2153-2165november 22, 2007doi: 10.1056/nejmra071714 sarcoidosis by hilario nunes et al, orphanet journal of rare diseases20072:46 doi: 10.1186/1750-1172-2-46 pulmonary sarcoidosis: typical and atypical manifestations at high-resolution ct with pathologic correlation by eva criado, md et al.,, doi: management of end-stage sarcoidosis: pulmonary hypertension and lung transplantation by oksana a. shlobin, steven d. nathan european respiratory journal 2012 39: 1520-1533; doi: 10.1183/09031936.00175511 rotsinger je, drake wp (2014) sarcoidosis: unknown etiology and genetic predisposition provides therapeutic challenges. j pulm respir med 4:190. doi:10.4172/2161-105x.1000190


Other helpful resources(support groups): american lung association foundation for sarcoidosis research sila the sarcoidosis charity irish sarcoidosis support network sarcoidosis association


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Presentations/quiz/newspaper articles: mlive living with sarcoidosis: jackson woman says she would rather have had cancer again than sarcoidosis the scientific american what is sarcoidosis?


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