Last Reviewed : 12/25/2020

Rickets is defective mineralization or calcification of bones before epiphyseal closure in immature mammals due to deficiency or impaired metabolism of vitamin D, phosphorus or calcium potentially leading to fractures and deformity. Rickets is among the most frequent childhood diseases in many developing countries. The predominant cause is a vitamin D deficiency, but lack of adequate calcium in the diet may also lead to rickets (cases of severe diarrhea and vomiting may be the cause of the deficiency). Although it can occur in adults, the majority of cases occur in children suffering from severe malnutrition, usually resulting from famine or starvation during the early stages of childhood.

Osteomalacia is a similar condition occurring in adults, generally due to a deficiency of vitamin D but occurs after epiphyseal closure.

We researched this topic for you and found the following best online resources. They are categorized into basic, advanced, and research level based on the extent of information you need. You will be taken to the respective websites by pressing on the links below.



Basic information:

http://www.healthline.com/health/rickets healthline rickets

http://www.nhs.uk/conditions/rickets/pages/introduction.aspx nhs uk rickets and osteomalacia

http://www.mayoclinic.org/diseases-conditions/rickets/home/ovc-20200467 mayo clinic rickets

https://medlineplus.gov/ency/article/000344.htm? medline plus rickets

https://www.betterhealth.vic.gov.au/health/conditionsandtreatments/rickets better health rickets

http://www.webmd.com/diet/rickets-vitamin-d-deficiency web md rickets

https://medlineplus.gov/rickets.html medline plus rickets

http://orthoinfo.aaos.org/topic.cfm?topic=a00577 ortho info rickets

http://umm.edu/health/medical/ency/articles/rickets university of maryland medical center rickets

http://familydoctor.org/familydoctor/en/diseases-conditions/rickets.html family doctor rickets

http://www.nytimes.com/health/guides/disease/rickets/overview.html new york times rickets

http://bodyandhealth.canada.com/condition/getcondition/osteomalacia canada rickets

http://www.netdoctor.co.uk/conditions/aches-and-pains/a2843/osteomalacia-and-rickets-vitamin-d-deficiency/ net doctor osteomalacia and rickets (vitamin d deficiency)

http://www.healthcommunities.com/bone-diseases/osteomalacia-and-rickets-overview.shtml health communities rickets


Advanced information:

http://www.medicinenet.com/rickets/article.htm medicine net rickets (calcium, phosphate, or vitamin d deficiency)

http://emedicine.medscape.com/article/985510-overview medscape rickets

http://www.medicalnewstoday.com/articles/176941.php medical news today rickets: causes, symptoms and treatments

http://rarediseases.org/rare-diseases/rickets-vitamin-d-deficiency/ national organisation for rare diseases rickets

http://www.aafp.org/afp/2006/0815/p619.html rickets: not a disease of the past am fam physician. 2006 aug 15;74(4):619-626.

http://www.news-medical.net/health/what-is-rickets.aspx news medical what is rickets?

http://www.thachers.org/rickets_photos.htm rickets photos

https://www.britannica.com/science/rickets brittanica rickets

http://patient.info/doctor/vitamin-d-deficiency-including-osteomalacia-and-rickets-pro patient vitamin d deficiency including osteomalacia and rickets

http://radiopaedia.org/articles/rickets radiopedia rickets

https://www.healthychildren.org/english/healthy-living/nutrition/pages/vitamin-d-deficiency-and-rickets.aspx healthy children.org vitamin d deficiency and rickets

http://www.ahrq.gov/research/findings/factsheets/children/rickets/index.html vitamin d supplementation to prevent rickets in breast-fed babies

http://www.orthobullets.com/basic-science/9031/rickets ortho bullets rickets

http://www.fpnotebook.com/rheum/peds/rckts1.htm family practise note book rickets

http://www.learningradiology.com/archives04/cow%20088-rickets/ricketscorrect.htm learning radiology rickets



http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ije/2010/472173/ dimitrios papandreou, pavlos malindretos, zacharoula karabouta, and israel rousso, “possible health implications and low vitamin d status during childhood and adolescence: an updated mini review,”international journal of endocrinology, vol. 2010, article id 472173, 7 pages, 2010. doi:10.1155/2010/472173

hazzazi ma, alzeer i, tamimi w, al atawi m, al alwan i. clinical presentation and etiology of osteomalacia/rickets in adolescents. saudi j kidney dis transpl [serial online] 2013 [cited 2016 jul 18];24:938-41. available from: http://www.sjkdt.org/text.asp?2013/24/5/938/118087

http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=s0041-87812004000500015 rev. hosp. clin. vol.59 no.5 são paulo 2004 http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/s0041-87812004000500015 review:hypophosphatemia in critically ill children by fernanda souza de menezes et al.,

http://www.hindawi.com/journals/bmri/2014/401213/ showkat ahmad ganie and surender singh yadav, “holoptelea integrifolia (roxb.) planch: a review of its ethnobotany, pharmacology, and phytochemistry,” biomed research international, vol. 2014, article id 401213, 12 pages, 2014. doi:10.1155/2014/401213

gupta a, dwivedi a, patel p, gupta s. hypophosphatemic osteomalacia in von recklinghausen neurofibromatosis: case report and literature review. indian j radiol imaging [serial online] 2015 [cited 2016 jul 18];25:63-6. available from: http://www.ijri.org/text.asp?2015/25/1/63/150155

khungar a, mahajan p, gupte g, vasundhara m, kher a, bharucha b a. pseudoachondroplastic dysplasia. j postgrad med [serial online] 1993 [cited 2016 jul 18];39:91. available from: http://www.jpgmonline.com/text.asp?1993/39/2/91/626

jagtap vs, sarathi v, lila ar, bandgar t, menon p, shah ns. hypophosphatemic rickets. indian j endocr metab [serial online] 2012 [cited 2016 jul 18];16:177-82. available from: http://www.ijem.in/text.asp?2012/16/2/177/93733

hadipour f, sarkheil p, noruzinia m, hadipour z, baghdadi t, shafeghati y. fanconi-bickel syndrome versus osteogenesis imperfeeta: an iranian case with a novel mutation in glucose transporter 2 gene, and review of literature. indian j hum genet [serial online] 2013 [cited 2016 jul 18];19:84-6. available from: http://www.ijhg.com/text.asp?2013/19/1/84/112906

kaushal m, magon n. vitamin d in pregnancy: a metabolic outlook. indian j endocr metab [serial online] 2013 [cited 2016 jul 18];17:76-82. available from: http://www.ijem.in/text.asp?2013/17/1/76/107862

http://pediatrics.aappublications.org/content/112/2/e132 pediatrics august 2003, volume 112 / issue 2 vitamin d, cod-liver oil, sunlight, and rickets: a historical perspective by kumaravel rajakumar

http://ajcn.nutrition.org/content/80/6/1725s.full nutritional rickets: deficiency of vitamin d, calcium, or both? by john m pettifor am j clin nutr december 2004
vol. 80 no. 6 1725s-1729s

https://nutritionj.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/1475-2891-5-1 case report of 5 siblings: malnutrition? rickets? digeorge syndrome? developmental delay? by david k cundiff and william harris nutrition journal20065:1 doi: 10.1186/1475-2891-5-1

http://ije.oxfordjournals.org/content/32/3/337.full commentary: bread and alum, syphilis and sunlight: rickets in the nineteenth century by anne hardy int. j. epidemiol. (2003) 32 (3):337-340.doi: 10.1093/ije/dyg175

sahay m, sahay r. renal rickets-practical approach. indian j endocr metab [serial online] 2013 [cited 2016 jul 21];17, suppl s1:35-44. available from: http://www.ijem.in/text.asp?2013/17/7/35/119503

http://www.cmaj.ca/content/177/2/161.full vitamin d–deficiency rickets among children in canada by leanne m. ward md et al., cmaj july 17, 2007 vol. 177 no. 2 first published june 28, 2007, doi:10.1503/cmaj.061377


Other articles:

http://www.merckvetmanual.com/mvm/musculoskeletal_system/dystrophies_associated_with_calcium_phosphorus_and_vitamin_d/rickets.html the merck veterinary manuals rickets


Related videos:

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=bxjvivekrxs rickets disease

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=qhhnapydyvw what is rickets/osteomalacia?!

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ofp9pos-x2k rickets

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=hmysys-t3rs rickets in children

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=5_pss-wleic 9.4.1. rickets - x-ray reading - dr. vaidya

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=pex2jpwua_u nutritional deficiency disease - rickets (vitamin d)


Presentations/quiz/newspaper articles:

http://www.radionz.co.nz/news/national/277515/nz-children-found-to-have-rickets radio new zealand nz children found to have rickets

http://www.dailymail.co.uk/health/article-3700474/sun-starved-britons-vitamin-d-winter-doctors-fear-rickets-eradicated-1950s-way-back.html daily mail sun-starved britons 'must take vitamin d in winter': doctors fear rickets, eradicated in the 1950s, is on the way back

read more: http://www.dailymail.co.uk/health/article-3700474/sun-starved-britons-vitamin-d-winter-doctors-fear-rickets-eradicated-1950s-way-back.html#ixzz4f68zgy4l
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http://www.telegraph.co.uk/news/health/11548378/video-games-linked-to-return-of-rickets-among-children.html the telegraph video games linked to return of rickets among children

http://www.cbc.ca/news/canada/north/rickets-on-the-rise-for-aboriginal-children-in-the-north-1.3010306 cba news rickets on the rise for aboriginal children in the north doctor says public health's efforts to stop resurgence 'abysmal failure'

http://www.citylab.com/navigator/2016/01/these-victorian-era-diseases-are-making-a-comeback-in-a-city-near-you/422562/ citylab these victorian-era diseases are making a comeback in a city near you gout, scurvy, and rickets are back—and thankfully, largely preventable.

https://www.theguardian.com/society/2014/aug/30/child-poverty-link-malnutrition-rickets the guardian rickets returns as poor families find healthy diets unaffordable

http://www.scotsman.com/news/increase-in-rickets-linked-to-overuse-of-sunscreen-1-3747234 scotsman increase in rickets linked to overuse of sunscreen

http://www.itv.com/news/2015-04-19/warning-over-rickets-epidemic-in-children-from-lack-of-sun-playing-video-games-indoors-and-over-use-of-sunscreen/ itv news warning over rickets 'epidemic' in children from lack of sun playing video games indoors and over use of sunscreen

http://www.theblaze.com/stories/2016/02/22/they-better-be-careful-donald-trump-threatens-wealthy-rickets-family-for-secretly-spending-money-against-him/ the blaze they better be careful’: donald trump threatens wealthy rickets family for ‘secretly spending’ money against him

http://www.bbc.com/news/uk-scotland-glasgow-west-34208976 bbc news oldest uk case of rickets in neolithic tiree skeleton



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