Last Reviewed : 12/25/2020

Pterygium (Surfer's Eye) most often refers to a benign growth of the conjunctiva. A pterygium commonly grows from the nasal side of the conjunctiva. It is usually present in the palpebral fissure. It is associated with and thought to be caused by ultraviolet-light exposure (e.g., sunlight), low humidity, and dust. The predominance of pterygia on the nasal side is possibly a result of the sun's rays passing laterally through the cornea, where it undergoes refraction and becomes focused on the limbic area. Sunlight passes unobstructed from the lateral side of the eye, focusing on the medial limbus after passing through the cornea. On the contralateral(medial) side, however, the shadow of the nose medially reduces the intensity of sunlight focused on the lateral/temporal limbus

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Basic information: web md pterygium (surfer’s eye) and pinguecula health line pterygium all about vision pterygium: what is "surfer's eye"? medline plus pterygium american academy of ophthalmology what is a pinguecula and a pterygium (surfer's eye)? better health pterygium health central pterygium


Advanced information: medscape pterygium helio several complications can result from pterygium surgery.recurrence is the most common complication after excision. southern cross medical library pterygium - causes, symptoms, treatment, prevention management of pterygium:clinical dr. vidya anandam, ms, aravind eye hospital, madurai

medinsight research institute. "new treatment for common incurable eye condition: pterygium/pinguecula treatment results." sciencedaily. sciencedaily, 15 march 2016. . dove med pterygium excision news medical new report reveals potential breakthrough in pterygium treatment



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quraishy m s, ebenezer r. recurrence of pterygium. review of 135 cases-excision technique. indian j ophthalmol [serial online] 1972 [cited 2016 jul 18];20:171-2. available from:

yadav ar, bhattad kr, sen pa, jain eb, sen a, jain bk. outcome of different techniques of pterygium excision with conjunctival autografting in pediatric population: our experience in central india. indian j ophthalmol [serial online] 2015 [cited 2016 jul 18];63:491-5. available from:

maheshwari s. effect of pterygium excision on pterygium induced astigmatism. indian j ophthalmol [serial online] 2003 [cited 2016 jul 19];51:187-8. available from:

gulani a, dastur y k. simultaneous pterygium and cataract surgery. j postgrad med [serial online] 1995 [cited 2016 jul 19];41:8-11. available from: am j pathol. 2011 feb; 178(2): 817–827. doi: 10.1016/j.ajpath.2010.10.037 pmcid: pmc3069871 ophthalmic pterygium:a stem cell disorder with premalignant features by jeanie chui et al., pterygium: nonsurgical treatment using topical dipyridamole - a case report by carlock b.h et al., case rep ophthalmol 2014;5:98-103
(doi:10.1159/000362113) oxidant/antioxidant state in tissue of prymary and recurrent pterygium by alexandre kormanovski et al., bmc ophthalmology201414:149 doi: 10.1186/1471-2415-14-149 medicc rev. vol.14 n.3 oakland jul. 2012 lessons from the field:cataract and pterygium surgery results in venezuelan patients treated in the misión milagro program by idalia triana md mph et al., rev. bras.oftalmol. vol.71 no.6 rio de janeiro nov./dec. 2012 artigo original:pterygium: prevalence and severity in an amazonian ophthalmic setting, brazil by sophie joanna coutts; andrew coombes overexpression of p53 tumor suppressor gene in pterygia by o weinstein et al., eye (2002) 16, 619–621. doi: 10.1038/sj.eye.6700150 sun ll, warrier s, beckingsale p (2011) pterygium and rate of dysplasia in surgical specimens. j clinic experiment ophthalmol 2:166. doi:10.4172/2155-9570.1000166


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