Progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (PML) is a rare and usually fatal viral disease characterized by progressive damage (-pathy) or inflammation of the white matter (leuko-) of the brain (-encephalo-) at multiple locations (multifocal). It is caused by the JC virus, which is normally present and kept under control by the immune system. JC virus is harmless except in cases of weakened immune systems. In general, PML has a mortality rate of 30–50 percent in the first few months and those who survive can be left with varying degrees of neurological disabilities.
PML occurs almost exclusively in patients with severe immune deficiency, most commonly among patients with acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS), but people on chronic immunosuppressive medications including chemotherapy are also at increased risk of PML, such as patients with transplants, Hodgkin's Lymphoma, multiple sclerosis, psoriasis and other autoimmune diseases.
We researched this topic for you and found the following best online resources. They are categorized into basic, advanced, and research level based on the extent of information you need. You will be taken to the respective websites by pressing on the links below.
http://www.hindawi.com/journals/crinm/2015/643216/ mohamed-ali babi, william pendlebury, steven braff, and waqar waheed, “jc virus pcr detection is not infallible: a fulminant case of progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy with false-negative cerebrospinal fluid studies despite progressive clinical course and radiological findings,” case reports in neurological medicine, vol. 2015, article id 643216, 4 pages, 2015. doi:10.1155/2015/643216
http://www.hindawi.com/journals/jir/2013/197807/ edward m. johnson, margaret j. wortman, ayuna v. dagdanova, patric s. lundberg, and dianne c. daniel, “polyomavirus jc in the context of immunosuppression: a series of adaptive, dna replication-driven recombination events in the development of progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy,” clinical and developmental immunology, vol. 2013, article id 197807, 10 pages, 2013. doi:10.1155/2013/197807
http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ijpedi/2009/348507/ peninnah oberdorfer, charles h. washington, kamornwan katanyuwong, and podjanee jittamala, “progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy in hiv-infected children: a case report and literature review,” international journal of pediatrics, vol. 2009, article id 348507, 6 pages, 2009. doi:10.1155/2009/348507
panchabhai ts, choudhary c, isada c, folch e, mehta ac. progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy in a lung transplant recipient: isolation of john cunningham (jc) virus from bronchoalveolar lavage. j global infect dis [serial online] 2016 [cited 2016 jul 16];8:51-4. available from: http://www.jgid.org/text.asp?2016/8/1/51/176150
http://www.hindawi.com/journals/msi/2015/809252/ justin m. honce, lidia nagae, and eric nyberg, “neuroimaging of natalizumab complications in multiple sclerosis: pml and other associated entities,” multiple sclerosis international, vol. 2015, article id 809252, 14 pages, 2015. doi:10.1155/2015/809252
http://www.hindawi.com/journals/jir/2013/839719/ anna bellizzi, elena anzivino, donatella maria rodio, anna teresa palamara, lucia nencioni, and valeria pietropaolo, “new insights on human polyomavirus jc and pathogenesis of progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy,” clinical and developmental immunology, vol. 2013, article id 839719, 17 pages, 2013. doi:10.1155/2013/839719
http://www.bloodjournal.org/content/113/20/4834?sso-checked=true progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy after rituximab therapy in hiv-negative patients: a report of 57 cases from the research on adverse drug events and reports project by kenneth r.carson et al., blood 2009 113:4834-4840; doi:10.1182/blood-2008-10-186999
http://icmr.nic.in/ijmr/2013/july/0709.pdf progressive multifocal leucoencephalopathy in hiv/aids: observational study from a tertiary care centre in northern india by s.k. sharma, m. soneja, s. ranjan, s. miglani, s. hari, s. sinha & n. wig indian j med res 138, july 2013, pp 72-77
http://cmr.asm.org/content/25/3/471.full molecular biology, epidemiology, and pathogenesis of progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy, the jc virus-induced demyelinating disease of the human brain by michael w. ferenczy et al., doi: 10.1128/cmr.05031-11clin. microbiol. rev. july 2012vol. 25 no. 3 471-5061 july 2012