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Primary Amenorrhea(Absent memses, absence of menstruation)

Primary Amenorrhea(Absent memses, absence of menstruation)

Last Reviewed : 12/24/2020
Primary Amenorrhea(Absent memses, absence of menstruation)

Amenorrhea is the absence of menstruation periods. Primary amenorrhea is a condition when menstruation never started in a female by the age of 16 when there is normal growth and normal development of secondary sexual characteristics like breasts and axillary and pubic hair. In the absence of secondary sexual characteristics, a physician should be consulted by the age 13 for further evaluation. Secondary amenorrhea is a condition where menstrual periods actually start and stop sometime later due to underlying pathological conditions. Primary amenorrhea is usually a clinical diagnosis. Thorough physical exam is required. Tests include blood work to check hormone levels like TSH, prolactin, FSH, LH. Imaging studies like pelvic ultra sound may be performed. Treatment is usually directed at the underlying abnormality. In some cases surgery may be needed.

We researched this topic for you and found the following best online resources. They are categorized into basic, advanced, and research level based on the extent of information you need. You will be taken to the respective websites by pressing on the links below.

 

Basic information:

http://emedicine.medscape.com/article/252928-overview. amenorrhea by kenneth m bielak, md

http://www.merckmanuals.com/professional/gynecology-and-obstetrics/menstrual-abnormalities/amenorrhea. amenorrhea.by joann v. pinkerton, md. merck manual

http://www.emedicinehealth.com/amenorrhea/article_em.htm. emedicine health. amenorrhea

http://www.mayoclinic.org/diseases-conditions/amenorrhea/basics/causes/con-20031561. mayo clinic. amenorrhea

. http://www.rightdiagnosis.com/p/primary_amenorrhea/intro.htm. primary amenorrhea.right diagnosis.

http://www.unboundmedicine.com/merckmanual/view/merck-manual-symp/251004/all/amenorrhea. merck manual

http://www.webmd.com/infertility-and-reproduction/guide/absence-periods. absence of periods. webmd

 

Advanced information:

https://www.researchgate.net/publication/222515877_primary_amenorrhoea_investigation_and_treatment. primary amenorrhoea: investigation and treatment catherine j hayden adam h balen. obstetrics gynaecology& reproductive medicine 07/2007; 17(7):199-204. doi: 10.1016/j.ogrm.2007.05.004.

http://www.aafp.org/afp/2013/0601/p781.html. amenorrhea: an approach to diagnosis and management. david a. klein, md, mph, san antonio military medical center, san antonio, texas.merrily a. poth, md, uniformed services university of the health sciences, bethesda, maryland. am fam physician. 2013 jun 1;87(11):781-788.

http://www.glowm.com/section_view/heading/amenorrhea/item/294. amenorrhea. by paul r. gindoff, md,

raphael jewelewicz, md. new york, new york. global library of women’s medicine

http://www.australiandoctor.com.au/cmspages/getfile.aspx?guid=8a509883-e328-4a93-9384-10cd2067195b. primary amenorrhea.by dr. david knight and dr. steve robson. australian doctor.

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/pmc4266542/. primary amenorrhea in anorexia nervosa: impact on characteristic masculine and feminine traits. baker et al. eur eat disord rev. 2014 jan; 22(1): 32–38.

 

Research:

http://cdn.intechopen.com/pdfs-wm/22073.pdf. primary and secondary amenorrhea

valentina chiavaroli, ebed’adamo, laura diesse, tommaso de giorgis, francesco chiarelli and angelika mohn. intechopen.com

https://www.asrm.org/uploadedfiles/asrm_content/news_and_publications/practice_guidelines/educational_bulletins/current_evaluation(1).pdf. current evaluation of amenorrhea.

the practice committee of the american society for reproductive medicine. fertility and sterility vol.90, suppl 3, november 2008. doi:10.1016/j.fertnstert.2008.08.038

http://www.scopemed.org/fulltextpdf.php?mno=1300. ever intriguing ‘primary amenorrhea’- an audit

sapnavinit amin, lavanya rai, priyadharshinipalpandi, aswathykumaran. international journal of reproduction, contraception, obstetrics and gynecology amin sv et al. int j reprodcontraceptobstet gynecol. 2014 dec;3(4):1090-1096.

. http://www.krepublishers.com/02-journals/ijhg/ijhg-10-0-000-10-web/ijhg-10-1-2-3-000-10-abst-pdf/ijhg-10-1-2-3-071-10-427-vijayalakshmi-j/ijhg-10-1-2-3-071-10-427-vijayalakshmi-tt.pdf. cytogenetic analysis of patients with primary amenorrhea. j. vijayalakshmi, teena koshy, harpreet kaur, f. andrea mary, r. selvi, v. deepa parvathi, r. bhavani, r. vikramjayanth, p. venkatchalam and solomon f. d. paul. int j hum genet, 10(1-3): 71-76 (2010)

http://www.scopemed.org/fulltextpdf.php?mno=41014. parikh rm, nakum k, kadikar gk, gokhle av. mullerian anomalies: a cause of primary amenorrhea. int j reprodcontraceptobstet gynecol. 2013; 2(3): 393-397. doi:10.5455/2320-1770.ijrcog20130926

http://www.rrml.ro/articole/2011/2011_2_4.pdf. clinical and cytogenetic correlation in primary and secondary amenorrhea: retrospective study on 531 patients.lacramioara butnariu¹* ,mircea covic¹, iuliu ivanov², cornel bujoran³, mihaela gramescu¹, eusebiu vlad gorduza¹. revistaromâna de medicina de laborator vol. 19, nr. 2/4, iunie 2011.

http://www.actamedicamediterranea.com/medica/2014/med2014_pag-383-387.pdf. the frequency and the type of different etiological factors in primary amenorrhea.elif agacayak1 , mehmet sait icen1 , senem yaman tunc1 , m siddik evsen1 , sevgi kalkanli2 ,serdar basaranoglu1. actamedicamediterranea, 2014, 30: 383

http://worldwidejournals.com/paripex/file.php?val=january_2016_1451997940__28.pdf. study of cases of primary amenorrhea due to developmental defects in adolescent girls.rathod et al. indian journal of research.volume : 5 | issue : 1 | january 2016

 

Related topics:

http://www.ijhg.com/article.asp?issn=0971-6866;year=2012;volume=18;issue=2;spage=183;epage=186;aulast=el-dahtory. el-dahtory f. chromosomal abnormalities and hormonal disorders of primary amenorrhea patients in egypt. indian j hum genet 2012;18:183-6

http://www.jpgmonline.com/article.asp?issn=0022-3859;year=1978;volume=24;issue=2;spage=106;epage=108;aulast=deshmukh. deshmukh ma, vaidya pr, motashaw nd. laparoscopy in primary amenorrhea. j postgrad med 1978;24:106-8.

http://www.scopemed.org/fulltextpdf.php?mno=165353. imperforate hymen and its complications: report of two cases and review of literature.international journal of reproduction, contraception, obstetrics and gynecology rathod s et al. int j reprodcontraceptobstet gynecol. 2014 sep;3(3):839-842

 

Other articles:

http://www.jebmh.com/data_pdf/supriya%20-2.pdf.”genital tuberculosis presenting as primary amenorrhea”.supriya mahajan. journal of evidence based medicine and healthcare; volume 2, issue 23, june 08, 2015; page: 3495-3498..

http://contemporaryobgyn.modernmedicine.com/%5bnode-source-domain-raw%5d/news/modernmedicine/modern-medicine-now/amenorrhea-caused-extremes-body-mas?page=full. amenorrhea caused by extremes of body mass: pathophysiology and sequelae. byalex j. polotsky, md, ms.contemporary ob/gyn

http://medind.nic.in/maa/t11/i1/maat11i1p86.pdf. iron overload : a cause of primary amenorrhea. maj nikita naredi', lt col atul seth, col ajay sharma mjafi2011; 67: 86~7.

http://www.futuresofpalmbeach.com/anorexia-athletica/amenorrhea/. how eating disorders and athletics can cause amenorrhea

 

Other helpful resources:

http://www.period-pain.net/amenorrhea.htm. amenorrhea.natural remedies.

 

Related videos:

https://onlinemeded.org/gynecology/primary-amenorrhea. online meded.primary amenorrhea by dustyn williams.

https://vimeo.com/11901688.primary amenorrhea.comlex instant review.

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