pre-eclampsia
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Pre Eclampsia

Pre Eclampsia

Last Reviewed : 12/24/2020
Pre Eclampsia

Pre-eclampsia or preeclampsia (PE) is a disorder of pregnancy characterized by high blood pressure and a large amount of protein in the urine. The disorder usually occurs in the third trimester of pregnancy and worsens over time. In severe disease there may be red blood cell breakdown, a low blood platelet count, impaired liver function, kidney dysfunction, swelling, shortness of breath due to fluid in the lungs, or visual disturbances. Preeclampsia increases the risk of poor outcomes for both the mother and the baby. If left untreated, it may result in seizures at which point it is known as eclampsia.

Risk factors for preeclampsia include: obesity, prior hypertension, older age, and diabetes mellitus. It is also more frequent in a woman's first pregnancy and if she is carrying twins.[2] The underlying mechanism involves abnormal formation of blood vessels in the placenta amongst other factors. Most cases are diagnosed before delivery. Rarely, preeclampsia may begin in the period after delivery. While historically both high blood pressure and protein in the urine were required to make the diagnosis, some definitions also include those with hypertension and any associated organ dysfunction. Blood pressure is defined as high when it is greater than 140 mmHg systolic or 90 mmHg diastolic at two separate times, more than four hours apart in a woman after twenty weeks of pregnancy. Preeclampsia is routinely screened for during prenatal care.

Recommendations for prevention include: aspirin in those at high risk, calcium supplementation in areas with low intake, and treatment of prior hypertension with medications. In those with preeclampsia delivery of the fetus and placenta is an effective treatment. When delivery becomes recommended depends on how severe the preeclampsia and how far along in pregnancy a person is. Blood pressure medication, such as labetalol and methyldopa, may be used to improve the mother's condition before delivery. Magnesium sulfate may be used to prevent eclampsia in those with severe disease. Bedrest and salt intake have not been found to be useful for either treatment or prevention.

Preeclampsia affects 2–8% of pregnancies worldwide. Hypertensive disorders of pregnancy (which include preeclampsia) are one of the most common causes of death due to pregnancy. They resulted in 29,000 deaths in 2013 – down from 37,000 deaths in 1990. Preeclampsia usually occurs after 32 weeks; however, if it occurs earlier it is associated with worse outcomes. Women who have had preeclampsia are at increased risk of heart disease and stroke later in life. The word eclampsia is from the Greek term for lightning. The first known description of the condition was by Hippocrates in the 5th century BC.

We researched this topic for you and found the following best online resources. They are categorized into basic, advanced, and research level based on the extent of information you need. You will be taken to the respective websites by pressing on the links below.

 

 

 

 

Basic information:

http://www.mayoclinic.org/diseases-conditions/preeclampsia/basics/definition/con-20031644 mayoclinic preeclampsia definition

http://www.webmd.com/baby/guide/preeclampsia-eclampsia web md preeclampsia and eclampsia

http://www.nhs.uk/conditions/pre-eclampsia/pages/introduction.aspx nhs uk preeclampsia

https://medlineplus.gov/ency/article/000898.htm medline plus preeclampsia

http://www.healthline.com/health/preeclampsia health line preeclampsia

https://www.betterhealth.vic.gov.au/health/healthyliving/pregnancy-pre-eclampsia better health pregnancy - pre-eclampsia

http://www.livescience.com/51401-what-is-preeclampsia.html live science preeclampsia: signs, symptoms & treatment

http://lifeinthefastlane.com/ccc/pre-eclampsia-and-eclampsia/ life in the fast lane pre-eclampsia and eclampsia

http://umm.edu/health/medical/altmed/condition/preeclampsia university of maryland medical center preeclampsia

http://www.nytimes.com/health/guides/disease/preeclampsia/overview.html new york times preeclampsia

http://bodyandhealth.canada.com/condition/getcondition/preeclampsia body and health canada.com preeclampsia

http://www.healthdirect.gov.au/pre-eclampsia-pregnancy-induced-hypertension health direct pre-eclampsia or pregnancy induced hypertension (pih)

http://www.healthlinkbc.ca/healthtopics/content.asp?hwid=hw2834 health link bc pre-eclampsia

https://myhealth.alberta.ca/health/pages/conditions.aspx?hwid=hw2834 my health alberta.ca pre-eclampsia

http://my.clevelandclinic.org/health/diseases_conditions/hic_am_i_pregnant/hic_premature_labor/hic_pregnancy-induced_hypertension cleveland clinic pregnancy-induced hypertension

 

Advanced information:

http://emedicine.medscape.com/article/1476919-overview medscape preeclampsia

http://www.medicalnewstoday.com/articles/252025.php medical news today preeclampsia: causes, diagnosis and treatments

http://patient.info/health/pre-eclampsia-leaflet patient preeclampsia

http://www.medicinenet.com/pregnancy_preeclampsia_and_eclampsia/article.htm medicine net.com pregnancy: preeclampsia and eclampsia

http://apps.who.int/iris/bitstream/10665/44703/1/9789241548335_eng.pdf who recommendations for prevention and treatment of pre-eclampsia and eclampsia

https://www.merckmanuals.com/professional/gynecology-and-obstetrics/abnormalities-of-pregnancy/preeclampsia-and-eclampsia merck manuals(professional version) preeclampsia and eclampsia

http://www.uptodate.com/contents/preeclampsia-beyond-the-basics upto date patient information: preeclampsia (beyond the basics)

medical university of vienna. "pre-eclampsia in pregnant women can be diagnosed exactly through a blood test." sciencedaily. sciencedaily, 25 january 2016. www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2016/01/160125090802.htm .

http://www.aafp.org/afp/2004/1215/p2317.html diagnosis and management of preeclampsia lana k. wagner, m.d., first choice community healthcare, albuquerque, new mexico am fam physician. 2004 dec 15;70(12):2317-2324.

http://www.thedailybeast.com/articles/2013/01/28/beyond-downton-abbey-preeclampsia-maternal-deaths-continue-today.html the daily beast beyond ‘downton abbey’: preeclampsia maternal deaths continue today

http://www.news-medical.net/health/what-is-pre-eclampsia.aspx news medical what is pre-eclampsia?

 

Research:

http://bmcmedicine.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/1741-7015-7-10 estimation of proteinuria as a predictor of complications of pre-eclampsia: a systematic review by shakila thangaratinam et al., bmc medicine20097:10 doi: 10.1186/1741-7015-7-10

http://bmcfampract.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/1471-2296-10-77 cardiovascular risk factor assessment after pre-eclampsia in primary care by marie-elise nijdam et al., bmc family practice200910:77 doi: 10.1186/1471-2296-10-77

http://bmcpregnancychildbirth.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/1471-2393-6-29 prediction of pre-eclampsia: a protocol for systematic reviews of test accuracy by jeltsje s cnossen et al., bmc pregnancy and childbirth20066:29 doi: 10.1186/1471-2393-6-29

http://rbej.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/1477-7827-8-4 neurokinin b and pre-eclampsia: a decade of discovery by nigel m page. reproductive biology and endocrinology20108:4 doi: 10.1186/1477-7827-8-4

http://bmcpregnancychildbirth.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/1471-2393-8-33 serum screening with down's syndrome markers to predict pre-eclampsia and small for gestational age: systematic review and meta-analysis by rachel k morris et al., bmc pregnancy and childbirth20088:33 doi: 10.1186/1471-2393-8-33

http://bmcpublichealth.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/1471-2458-11-s3-s8 quantifying the fall in mortality associated with interventions related to hypertensive diseases of pregnancy by carine ronsmans et al., bmc public health201111(suppl 3):s8 doi: 10.1186/1471-2458-11-s3-s8

http://bmcpregnancychildbirth.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/1471-2393-8-38 tests for predicting complications of pre-eclampsia: a protocol for systematic reviews by shakila thangaratinam et al., bmc pregnancy and childbirth20088:38 doi: 10.1186/1471-2393-8-38

http://bmcpregnancychildbirth.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/1471-2393-13-34 an integrative review of the side effects related to the use of magnesium sulfate for pre-eclampsia and eclampsia management by jeffrey michael smith et al., bmc pregnancy and childbirth201313:34 doi: 10.1186/1471-2393-13-34

http://europepmc.org/backend/ptpmcrender.fcgi?accid=pmc3608621&blobtype=pdf bigdeli m, zafar s, assad h, ghaffar a (2013) health system barriers to access and use of magnesium sulfate for women with severe pre-eclampsia and eclampsia in pakistan: evidence for policy and practice. plos one 8(3): e59158. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0059158

http://journal.frontiersin.org/article/10.3389/fphar.2014.00134/full review article front. pharmacol., 05 june 2014 | http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fphar.2014.00134 impaired adenosine-mediated angiogenesis in preeclampsia: potential implications for fetal programming by carlos escudero et al.,

http://bmcpublichealth.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/1471-2458-11-s3-s6 impact of interventions to prevent and manage preeclampsia and eclampsia on stillbirths by mehnaz jabeen et al., bmc public health201111(suppl 3):s6 doi: 10.1186/1471-2458-11-s3-s6

http://europepmc.org/backend/ptpmcrender.fcgi?accid=pmc3709893&blobtype=pdf : kleinrouweler ce, van uitert m, moerland pd, ris-stalpers c, van der post jam, et al. (2013) differentially expressed genes in the pre-eclamptic placenta: a systematic review and meta-analysis. plos one 8(7): e68991. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0068991

http://europepmc.org/backend/ptpmcrender.fcgi?accid=pmc3877387&blobtype=pdf : nakimuli a, elliott am, kaleebu p, moffett a, mirembe f (2013) hypertension persisting after pre-eclampsia: a prospective cohort study at mulago hospital, uganda . plos one 8(12): e85273. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0085273

petla lt, chikkala r, ratnakar k s, kodati v, sritharan v. biomarkers for the management of pre-eclampsia in pregnant women. indian j med res [serial online] 2013 [cited 2016 jul 14];138:60-7. available from: http://www.ijmr.org.in/text.asp?2013/138/1/60/116198

 

 

 

 

Other helpful resources(support groups):

http://promisewalk.org/ the promose walk for pre eclampsia

http://www.preeclampsiaregistry.org/ the pre eclampsia registries

http://www.aapec.org.au/ australian action for pre eclampsia

 

Related videos:

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=_vilj28pwqs preeclampsia pathophysiology

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=zbgzi_1blfq preeclampsia

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=eta446nktr0 preeclampsia

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=2t4bki6nttk what is preeclampsia?

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=70tpqg58oug preeclampsia

 

Presentations/quiz/newspaper articles:

http://www.cbsnews.com/news/preeclampsia-during-pregnancy-raises-autism-risk/ cbs news preeclampsia during pregnancy raises autism risk

http://edition.cnn.com/2013/01/28/health/eclampsia-5-things/ cnn.com eclampsia: 5 things you need to know

http://abcnews.go.com/topics/lifestyle/health/preeclampsia.htm abc news preeclampsia news

http://www.theage.com.au/victoria/australian-scientists-discover-new-treatment-for-preeclampsia-20151221-glsoi9.html the age australian scientists discover new treatment for pre-eclampsia

http://www.dailymail.co.uk/health/article-3613668/saliva-testing-kit-help-stop-pre-eclampsia-telling-pregnant-women-risk-just-20-weeks.html daily mail saliva testing kit that can help stop pre-eclampsia by telling pregnant women if they are at risk after just 20 weeks

read more: http://www.dailymail.co.uk/health/article-3613668/saliva-testing-kit-help-stop-pre-eclampsia-telling-pregnant-women-risk-just-20-weeks.html#ixzz4eomdondi
follow us: @mailonline on twitter | dailymail on facebook

https://www.theguardian.com/science/2010/oct/06/pre-eclampsia-root-cause the guardian scientists find cause of pre-eclampsia

http://www.foxnews.com/health/2014/03/23/preeclampsia-on-rise-what-every-pregnant-woman-should-know.html fox news preeclampsia on the rise: what every pregnant woman should know

http://www.huffingtonpost.in/entry/respect-the-big-p-a-closer-look-at-preeclampsia_b_9508022 huffington post respect the 'big p': a closer look at preeclampsia

http://news.heart.org/preeclampsia-doubles-womens-stroke-risk-quadruples-later-high-blood-pressure-risk/ news heart preeclampsia doubles women’s stroke risk, quadruples later high blood pressure risk

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