Polycystic Ovarian Disease(PCOD)/Stein leventhal Syndrome

Polycystic Ovarian Disease(PCOD)/Stein leventhal Syndrome

Last Reviewed : 12/24/2020
Polycystic Ovarian Disease(PCOD)/Stein leventhal Syndrome

Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), also called Stein-Leventhal syndrome, is a set of symptoms due to elevated male hormone in women. Signs and symptoms of PCOS include irregular or no menstrual periods, heavy periods, excess body and facial hair, acne, pelvic pain, difficulty getting pregnant, and patches of thick, darker, velvety skin. Associated conditions include type 2 diabetes, obesity, obstructive sleep apnea, heart disease, mood disorders, and endometrial cancer.

PCOS is due to a combination of genetic and environmental factors. Risk factors include obesity, not enough physical exercise, and a family history of someone with the condition. Diagnosis is based on two of the following three findings: no ovulation, high androgen levels, and ovarian cysts. Cysts may be detectable by ultrasound. Other conditions that produce similar symptoms include adrenal hyperplasia, hypothyroidism, and hyperprolactinemia.

PCOS has no cure. Treatment may involve lifestyle changes such as weight loss and exercise. Birth control pills may help with improving the regularity of periods, excess hair growth, and acne. Metformin and anti-androgens may also help. Other typical acne treatments and hair removal techniques may be used. Efforts to improve fertility include weight loss, clomiphene, or metformin. In vitro fertilization is used by some in whom other measures are not effective.

PCOS is the most common endocrine disorder among women between the ages of 18 and 44. It is believed that the Polycystic Ovary Syndrome reach up to 20% (peaking at 26% in the UK, 17,8% in Australia, 19,9% in Turkey, 15,2% in Iran, according to Rotterdam criteria) of women of reproductive age, manifesting in general, from puberty. It is one of the leading causes of poor fertility. The earliest known description of what is now recognized as PCOS dates from 1721 in Italy

We researched this topic for you and found the following best online resources. They are categorized into basic, advanced, and research level based on the extent of information you need. You will be taken to the respective websites by pressing on the links below.




Basic information:

http://www.webmd.com/women/tc/polycystic-ovary-syndrome-pcos-topic-overview web md polycystic ovary syndrome (pcos) - topic overview

http://www.healthline.com/health/polycystic-ovary-disease healthline polycystic ovarian syndrome

http://www.mayoclinic.org/diseases-conditions/pcos/basics/definition/con-20028841 mayoclinic definition

http://www.hormone.org/diseases-and-conditions/womens-health/polycystic-ovary-syndrome harmone health network polycystic ovarian syndrome

http://womenshealth.gov/publications/our-publications/fact-sheet/polycystic-ovary-syndrome.html womens health polycystic ovary syndrome (pcos) fact sheet

https://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/ency/article/000369.htm medline plus polycystic ovary syndrome

http://www.girlshealth.gov/body/reproductive/pcos.html girls health.gov polycystic ovarian syndrome

http://www.nhs.uk/conditions/polycystic-ovarian-syndrome/pages/introduction.aspx nhs uk polycystic ovary syndrome

https://www.merckmanuals.com/professional/gynecology-and-obstetrics/menstrual-abnormalities/polycystic-ovary-syndrome-pcos merck manuals (professional version) polycystic ovary syndrome (pcos)

http://kidshealth.org/en/teens/pcos.html kids health polycystic ovarian syndrome

http://my.clevelandclinic.org/health/diseases_conditions/hic_polycystic_ovary_syndrome cleveland clinic polycystic ovary syndrome

https://labtestsonline.org/understanding/conditions/pcos/ lab tests online polycystic ovary syndrome

https://www.betterhealth.vic.gov.au/health/conditionsandtreatments/polycystic-ovarian-syndrome-pcos better health polycystic ovarian syndrome (pcos)

http://www.healthnavigator.org.nz/health-a-z/p/polycystic-ovary-syndrome/ health navigator polycystic ovary syndrome

http://www.healthcommunities.com/polycystic-ovary-syndrome/what-is-polycystic-ovarian-disease.shtml health communities polycystic ovarian syndrome


Advanced information:

http://www.medicinenet.com/polycystic_ovary/article.htm medicine net.com polycystic ovarian syndrome (pcos, pos, pod, stein-leventhal syndrome)

http://www.medicalnewstoday.com/articles/265309.php mdical news today polycystic ovary syndrome (pcos): causes, symptoms and treatments

http://emedicine.medscape.com/article/256806-overview medscape polycystic ovarian syndrome

http://patient.info/health/polycystic-ovary-syndrome-leaflet patient polycystic ovary syndrome

http://www.dermnetnz.org/systemic/polycystic-ovaries.html dermnet nz polycystic ovary syndrome

http://radiopaedia.org/articles/polycystic-ovarian-syndrome-1 radiopedia polycystic ovarian syndrome

http://www.emedicinehealth.com/polycystic_ovarian_syndrome_pcos/article_em.htm emedicine health polycystic ovarian syndrome (pcos)

http://www.uptodate.com/contents/polycystic-ovary-syndrome-pcos-beyond-the-basics upto date patient information: polycystic ovary syndrome (pcos) (beyond the basics)



http://europepmc.org/backend/ptpmcrender.fcgi?accid=pmc4444207&blobtype=pdf : hoang v, bi j, mohankumar sm, vyas ak(2015) liraglutide improves hypertension and metabolic perturbation in a rat model of polycystic ovarian syndrome. plos one 10(5): e0126119. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0126119

sharmila v, babu ta. oral contraceptive pills induced hemichorea in an adolescent female with polycystic ovarian disease. indian j pharmacol [serial online] 2015 [cited 2016 jun 23];47:232-3. available from: http://www.ijp-online.com/text.asp?2015/47/2/232/153440

http://www.scopemed.org/fulltextpdf.php?mno=206434 correlation of severity of hyperandrogenism with ovarian stroma to area ratio and stromal echogenicity in polycystic ovary syndrome patients by pooja gupta, harsha gaikwad

gupta p et al. int j reprod contracept obstet gynecol. 2016 jan;5(1):116-120

http://ijfs.ir/library/upload/article/af_45452243254233664422272542425223758662748-morotti-1.pdf morotti e, battaglia b, fabbri r, paradisi r, venturoli s, battaglia c. cigarette smoking and cardiovascular risk in young women with polycystic ovary syndrome. int j fertil steril. 2014; 7(4): 301-312

http://www.scopemed.org/fulltextpdf.php?mno=192232 association of calpain 10 gene ucsnp-43 polymorphism(rs3792267) with polycystic ovarian syndrome by thathapudi s et al. int j reprod contracept obstet gynecol. 2015 aug;4(4):1185-1190 doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.18203/2320-1770.ijrcog20150452

http://www.jemds.com/data_pdf/1_malti%20balmurgan------afs------.pdf malathi balamurugan, m. balamurugan, gomathi ramanathan. “heart rate variability and lipid profile in nonobese young indian women with polycystic ovary syndrome”. journal of evolution of medical and dental sciences 2015; vol. 4, issue 24, march 23; page: 4092-4109, doi: 10.14260/jemds/2015/591

http://rbej.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/1477-7827-7-68 an imbalance between apoptosis and proliferation contributes to follicular persistence in polycystic ovaries in rats by natalia r salvetti et al., reproductive biology and endocrinology20097:68 doi: 10.1186/1477-7827-7-68

http://www.scopemed.org/fulltextpdf.php?mno=206632 prevalence of glucose tolerance test abnormalities in women with polycystic ovarian syndrome

by gracelyn lj et al. int j reprod contracept obstet gynecol. 2015 dec;4(6):1739-1745

doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.18203/2320-1770.ijrcog20151215

http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=s1678-91992012000400006 j. venom. anim. toxins incl. trop. dis vol.18 no.4 botucatu 2012 http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/s1678-91992012000400006 original paper:bee venom treatment reduced c-reactive protein and improved follicle quality in a rat model of estradiol valerate-induced polycystic ovarian syndrome by karimzadeh l; nabiuni m; sheikholeslami a; irian s

madnani n, khan k, chauhan p, parmar g. polycystic ovarian syndrome. indian j dermatol venereol leprol [serial online] 2013 [cited 2016 jun 23];79:310-21. available from: http://www.ijdvl.com/text.asp?2013/79/3/310/110759

http://europepmc.org/backend/ptpmcrender.fcgi?accid=pmc3105021&blobtype=pdf dessapt-baradez c, reza m, sivakumar g, hernandez-fuentes m, markakis k, et al. (2011) circulating vascular progenitor cells and central arterial stiffness in polycystic ovary syndrome. plos one 6(5): e20317. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0020317

http://ovarianresearch.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/1757-2215-2-3 relationship between heart rate recovery and inflammatory markers in patients with polycystic ovary syndrome: a cross-sectional study by francesco giallauria et al., journal of ovarian research20092:3 doi: 10.1186/1757-2215-2-3


Related topics:

http://www.homeocare.in/pcos-polycystic-ovarian-syndrome.html homeocare pcos treatment in homeopathy

http://wellinghomeopathy.com/fertility-treatment/female-infertility-treatment-mumbai/polycystic-ovarian-syndrome-pcos-treatment/ welling homeopathy treatment of pcos

https://www.askdrshah.com/pcod.aspx life force homeopathy pcod

http://www.drhomeo.com/pcos/homeopathic-remedies-for-polycystic-ovarian-syndrome-or-pcos/ dr homeo.com top homeopathic remedies for polycystic ovarian syndrome or pcos


Other helpful resources(support groups):

http://www.pcosfoundation.org/what-is-pcos pcos foundation

http://www.pcosaa.org/ pcod awareness association


Related videos:

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=caenl4nprnq polycystic ovarian syndrome

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=3bsrabg3rri polycystic ovarian syndrome (pcos)

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=nouxem-nzx8 ovarian cyst and polycystic ovarian syndrome (pcos) : symptoms, treatment and real experiences

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=fsnkyks7m_s patient engagement video: polycystic ovary syndrome (pcos)

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=gkx2hb6qu_m polycystic ovary syndrome (pcos) for usmle

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=-dhuiobux5s polycystic ovarian syndrome (pcos) - made easy


Presentations/quiz/newspaper articles:

http://www.dnaindia.com/health/report-one-out-of-every-10-indian-women-have-polycystic-ovary-syndrome-dr-duru-shah-founder-president-pcos-society-2127640 dna india one out of every 10 indian women have polycystic ovary syndrome: dr duru shah, founder president, pcos society

http://www.india.com/wellness-and-beauty/how-to-reduce-effects-of-polycystic-ovarian-syndrome-naturally-596794/ india how to reduce effects of polycystic ovarian syndrome naturally

http://www.independent.co.uk/life-style/health-and-families/pcos-diet-treatment-pain-symptoms-polycystic-ovary-syndrome-10463814.html independant pcos: what are the symptoms of polycystic ovary syndrome and how is it treated?

http://timesofindia.indiatimes.com/topic/polycystic-ovary-syndrome times of india polycystic ovarian syndrome

http://www.deccanchronicle.com/lifestyle/health-and-wellbeing/310316/polycystic-ovary-syndrome-causes-complications-even-in-fit-pregnant-women.html deccan chronicle polycystic ovary syndrome causes complications even in fit pregnant women

http://www.news18.com/news/lifestyle-2/polycystic-ovarian-disease-has-become-the-most-common-hormonal-discorder-dr-sushma-sinha-1152598.html news 18 polycystic ovarian disease has become the most common hormonal discorder: dr sushma sinha

http://www.dailymail.co.uk/health/article-3351673/children-born-mothers-polycystic-ovarian-syndrome-greater-risk-developing-autism.html daily mail children born to mothers with polycystic ovarian syndrome 'are at greater risk of developing autism'


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