Polyarteritis nodosa, also known as panarteritis nodosa, periarteritis nodosa, Kussmaul disease, Kussmaul-Maierdisease or PAN, is a systemic vasculitis of small- or medium-sized muscular arteries, typically involving renal and visceral vessels but sparing the pulmonary circulation. Polyarteritis nodosa may present in infants. In polyarteritis nodosa, small aneurysms are strung like the beads of a rosary, therefore making "rosary sign" an important diagnostic feature of the vasculitis.
With treatment, five-year survival is 80%; without treatment, five-year survival is 13%. Death is often a consequence of kidney failure, myocardial infarction, or stroke.
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https://www.hindawi.com/journals/criu/2016/7592563/ emrah simsek, hasan yilmaz, kerem teke, ali kemal uslubas, and mustafa yuksekkaya, “spontaneous retroperitoneal haematoma due to polyarteritis nodosa: report of a case and literature review,” case reports in urology, vol. 2016, article id 7592563, 3 pages, 2016. doi:10.1155/2016/7592563
https://www.hindawi.com/journals/crim/2016/5134546/ yunus ugan, atalay dogru, hüseyin sencan, mehmet sahin, and sevket ercan tunç, “sacroiliitis and polyarteritis nodosa in a patient with familial mediterranean fever,” case reports in medicine, vol. 2016, article id 5134546, 3 pages, 2016. doi:10.1155/2016/5134546
https://www.hindawi.com/journals/crim/2009/738293/ emmanuel ribeiro, thomas cressend, pierre duffau, et al., “rituximab efficacy during a refractory polyarteritis nodosa flare,” case reports in medicine, vol. 2009, article id 738293, 3 pages, 2009. doi:10.1155/2009/738293
https://www.hindawi.com/journals/crim/2013/741047/ amira hamzaoui, noureddine litaiem, m. smiti khanfir, sofiene ayadi, haifa nfoussi, and m. h. houman, “ischemic colitis revealing polyarteritis nodosa,” case reports in medicine, vol. 2013, article id 741047, 4 pages, 2013. doi:10.1155/2013/741047
https://www.hindawi.com/journals/arthritis/2010/687547/ nina-karen bansal and kristin michelle houghton, “cutaneous polyarteritis nodosa in childhood: a case report and review of the literature,” arthritis, vol. 2010, article id 687547, 7 pages, 2010. doi:10.1155/2010/687547
https://www.hindawi.com/journals/crirh/2014/604874/ maiko kouchi, shinji sato, masahiro kamono, et al., “a case of polyarteritis nodosa associated with cytomegalovirus infection,” case reports in rheumatology, vol. 2014, article id 604874, 3 pages, 2014. doi:10.1155/2014/604874
https://www.hindawi.com/journals/criu/2011/465353/ nicholas j. toepfer, nektarios i. lountzis, joseph c. ugoeke, and tammie c. ferringer, “polyarteritis nodosa with bilateral asynchronous testicular necrosis: a case report,” case reports in urology, vol. 2011, article id 465353, 4 pages, 2011. doi:10.1155/2011/465353