Last Reviewed : 12/24/2020

Poliomyelitis, often called polio or infantile paralysis, is an infectious disease caused by the poliovirus. In about 0.5% of cases there is muscle weakness resulting in an inability to move. This can occur over a few hours to few days. The weakness most often involves the legs but may less commonly involve the muscles of the head, neck and diaphragm. Many but not all people fully recover. In those with muscle weakness about 2% to 5% of children and 15% to 30% of adults die. Another 25% of people have minor symptoms such as fever and a sore throat and up to 5% have headache, neck stiffness and pains in the arms and legs. These people are usually back to normal within one or two weeks. In up to 70% of infections there are no symptoms. Years after recovery post-polio syndrome may occur, with a slow development of muscle weakness similar to that which the person had during the initial infection.

Poliovirus is usually spread from person to person through infected fecal matter entering the mouth. It may also be spread by food or water containing human feces and less commonly from infected saliva. Those who are infected may spread the disease for up to six weeks even if no symptoms are present. The disease may be diagnosed by finding the virus in the feces or detecting antibodies against it in the blood. The disease only occurs naturally in humans.

The disease is preventable with the polio vaccine; Poliomyelitis has existed for thousands of years, with depictions of the disease in ancient art. The disease was first recognized as a distinct condition by Michael Underwood in 1789 and the virus that causes it was first identified in 1908 by Karl Landsteiner. Major outbreaks started to occur in the late 19th century in Europe and the United States. In the 20th century it became one of the most worrying childhood diseases in these areas. The first polio vaccine was developed in the 1950s by Jonas Salk. It is hoped that vaccination efforts and early detection of cases will result in global eradication of the disease by 2018.

We researched this topic for you and found the following best online resources. They are categorized into basic, advanced, and research level based on the extent of information you need. You will be taken to the respective websites by pressing on the links below.



Basic information:

http://www.healthline.com/health/poliomyelitis health line polio

http://kidshealth.org/en/parents/polio.html kids health polio

http://www.nhs.uk/conditions/polio/pages/introduction.aspx nhs uk polio

http://www.mayoclinic.org/diseases-conditions/polio/basics/definition/con-20030957 mayoclinic polio

http://www.webmd.com/children/vaccines/polio-vaccine-ipv web md polio vaccine (ipv)

http://www.nytimes.com/health/guides/disease/poliomyelitis/overview.html new york times poliomyelitis


Advanced information:

http://www.polioeradication.org/polioandprevention.aspx polio eradication polio global eradication initiative

http://www.medicalnewstoday.com/articles/155580.php medical news today polio: causes, symptoms, and vaccines

http://www.historyofvaccines.org/content/timelines/polio history of vaccines history of polio

http://www.vaccines.gov/diseases/polio/ vaccines.gov polio

http://www.medicinenet.com/polio_facts/article.htm medicine net polio

http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/aso/databank/entries/dm52sa.html a science oddyssey
salk produces polio vaccine

http://patient.info/health/polio-immunisation patient polio immunisation

http://www.healthheritageresearch.com/mcplague.html the middle-class plague: epidemic polio and the canadian state, 1936-1937 by christopher j. rutty, ph.d. health heritage research services

http://indiagovernance.gov.in/bestpractices.php?id=143 governance knowledge center pulse polio immunization (ppi), india



http://europepmc.org/backend/ptpmcrender.fcgi?accid=pmc3330118&blobtype=pdf : hird tr, grassly nc (2012) systematic review of mucosal immunity induced by oral and inactivated poliovirus vaccines against virus shedding following oral poliovirus challenge. plos pathog 8(4): e1002599. doi:10.1371/journal.ppat.1002599

http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=s1516-84842002000300008 rev. bras. hematol. hemoter. vol.24 no.3 são josé do rio preto 2002 http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/s1516-84842002000300008 artigo especial / special article reimmunization after bone marrow transplantation. current recommendations and perspectives by clarisse m. machado

http://www.hindawi.com/journals/jir/2016/6837824/ shazia ghafoor and nadeem sheikh, “eradication and current status of poliomyelitis in pakistan: ground realities,” journal of immunology research, vol. 2016, article id 6837824, 6 pages, 2016. doi:10.1155/2016/6837824

http://ijp.mums.ac.ir/pdf_4157_c33b14918a5a9ad5c4b230d3c5d66320.html immunization coverage in who regions: a review article by rahim vakili et al., int j pediatr (supplement.1), vol.3, n.2-1, serial no.15, march 2015

skibinski da, baudner bc, singh m, o'hagan dt. combination vaccines. j global infect dis [serial online] 2011 [cited 2016 aug 19];3:63-72. available from: http://www.jgid.org/text.asp?2011/3/1/63/77298

http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ijp/2011/798051/ j. anthony byrne, pilar a. fernandez-ibañez, patrick s. m. dunlop, dheaya m. a. alrousan, and jeremy w. j. hamilton, “photocatalytic enhancement for solar disinfection of water: a review,” international journal of photoenergy, vol. 2011, article id 798051, 12 pages, 2011. doi:10.1155/2011/798051

http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=s0004-282x2010000100008 arq. neuro-psiquiatr. vol.68 no.1 são paulo feb. 2010 http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/s0004-282x2010000100008 article:sleep disorders frequency in post-polio syndrome patients caused by periodic limb movements by maria auxiliadora de paiva araujo et al.,

http://www.internationalarchivesent.org/conteudo/acervo_eng.asp?id=820 biase ngd, moraes bt, leb mda, korn gp, padovani m, moraes m, et al. pharyngolaryngeal manifestations of post-polio syndrome. int. arch. otorhinolaryngol. 2011;15(4):529-533

http://www.jkimsu.com/volume1no1/jkimsu-2012-volume1-no1-p-30-37.pdf a study of various factors determining the quality of acute flaccid paralysis surveillance of beed district by swapnil vishnu lale jkimsu, (2012), vol. 1 (1) 30-37


Other helpful resources(support groups):

http://www.gatesfoundation.org/what-we-do/global-development/polio bill and millenda gates foundation

http://www.endpolio.org/ end polio now

http://www.endpolio.com.pk/ end polio pakistan


Related videos:

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ge4ef0yqzru the polio story - the vaccine that changed the world

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=os_jletxk-k "1955 polio epidemic"

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=oft72dpwwyi ben anderson's debrief on the polio outbreak in pakistan


Presentations/quiz/newspaper articles:

http://www.sciencemag.org/news/2016/08/polio-reappears-nigeria-triggering-massive-response science mag polio reappears in nigeria, triggering massive response by leslie robertsaug. 15, 2016 , 4:00 pm

http://www.thehindu.com/opinion/op-ed/is-india-actually-free-of-polio/article7945687.ece the hindu is india actually free of polio?

http://www.bbc.com/news/world-africa-37058618 bbc news nigeria to start emergency polio campaign

http://www.bbc.com/news/health-36055507 bbc news vaccine switched in 'milestone' towards ending polio

http://time.com/3971057/nigeria-polio-eradication/ time this is how nigeria beat polio

http://timesofindia.indiatimes.com/city/hyderabad/polio-virus-resurfaces-in-hyderabad-after-5-years/articleshow/52755410.cms times of india polio virus resurfaces in hyderabad after 5 years

http://www.theatlantic.com/health/archive/2016/08/a-wild-polio-outbreak-in-nigeria/495512/ the atlantic a wild-polio outbreak in nigeria

http://edition.cnn.com/2016/08/16/health/polio-nigeria-new-cases/ cnn why is polio so hard to beat?

http://www.ndtv.com/telangana-news/polio-virus-resurfaces-in-hyderabad-after-5-years-1419179 ndtv india is polio free, says government after strain found in hyderabad

http://news.nationalgeographic.com/2015/03/150303-polio-pakistan-islamic-state-refugees-vaccination-health/ national geographic taliban assassins target pakistan's polio vaccinators

http://www.scientificamerican.com/magazine/sa-classics/classics-polio-pushed-to-the-brink/ scientific american polio: pushed to the brink

http://www.dawn.com/news/1253283 dawn seven policemen guarding polio workers shot dead in karachi

http://medicalxpress.com/news/2016-08-nigeria-emergency-polio-vaccinations.html medical express nigeria starts emergency polio vaccinations

http://www.dailymail.co.uk/health/article-3593793/could-polio-help-cure-cancer-therapy-harnessing-virus-destroys-brain-tumors.html daily mail could polio help cure cancer? therapy harnessing the virus 'destroys brain tumors'

read more: http://www.dailymail.co.uk/health/article-3593793/could-polio-help-cure-cancer-therapy-harnessing-virus-destroys-brain-tumors.html#ixzz4ho4ex1yl
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https://www.newscientist.com/article/mg22730323-600-nigerias-polio-free-year-sees-africa-inch-closer-to-eradication/ new scientist nigeria’s polio-free year sees africa inch closer to eradication

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