A pleural effusion is excess fluid that accumulates in the pleural cavity, the fluid-filled space that surrounds the lungs. This excess can impair breathing by limiting the expansion of the lungs. Various kinds of pleural effusion, depending on the nature of the fluid and what caused its entry into the pleural space, are hydrothorax (serous fluid), hemothorax (blood), urinothorax (urine), chylothorax(chyle), or pyothorax (pus). A pneumothorax is the accumulation of air in the pleural space, and is commonly called a "collapsed lung."
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http://www.hindawi.com/journals/criid/2012/409896/ abdel-naser elzouki, mustafa al-kawaaz, and zaid tafesh, “secondary syphilis with pleural effusion: case report and literature review,” case reports in infectious diseases, vol. 2012, article id 409896, 4 pages, 2012. doi:10.1155/2012/409896
http://bmcpulmmed.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/1471-2466-10-54 bilateral pleural effusion and interstitial lung disease as unusual manifestations of kikuchi-fujimoto disease: case report and literature review by alberto garcia-zamalloa et al., bmc pulmonary medicinebmc series ¿ open, inclusive and trusted201010:54 doi: 10.1186/1471-2466-10-54
http://www.hindawi.com/journals/dm/2016/7539780/ shimon izhakian, walter g. wasser, benjamin d. fox, baruch vainshelboim, and mordechai r. kramer, “the diagnostic value of the pleural fluid c-reactive protein in parapneumonic effusions,” disease markers, vol. 2016, article id 7539780, 6 pages, 2016. doi:10.1155/2016/7539780
http://www.hindawi.com/journals/crj/2005/498709/abs/ luce cantin, carl chartrand-lefebvre, luigi lepanto, et al., “chest tube drainage under radiological guidance for pleural effusion and pneumothorax in a tertiary care university teaching hospital: review of 51 cases,” canadian respiratory journal, vol. 12, no. 1, pp. 29-33, 2005. doi:10.1155/2005/498709