Pituitary Apoplexy

Pituitary Apoplexy

Last Reviewed : 12/24/2020
Pituitary Apoplexy

Pituitary apoplexy or pituitary tumor apoplexy is bleeding into or impaired blood supply of the pituitary gland at the base of the brain. This usually occurs in the presence of a tumor of the pituitary, although in 80% of cases this has not been diagnosed previously. The most common initial symptom is a sudden headache, often associated with a rapidly worsening visual field defect ordouble vision caused by compression of nerves surrounding the gland. This is followed in many cases by acute symptoms caused by lack of secretion of essential hormones, predominantly adrenal insufficiency.

The diagnosis is achieved with magnetic resonance imaging and blood tests. Treatment is by the timely correction of hormone deficiencies, and in many cases surgical decompression is required. Many people who have had a pituitary apoplexy develop pituitary hormone deficiencies and require long-term hormone supplementation. The first case of the disease was recorded in 1898.

We researched this topic for you and found the following best online resources. They are categorized into basic, advanced, and research level based on the extent of information you need. You will be taken to the respective websites by pressing on the links below.




Basic information:

https://medlineplus.gov/ency/article/001167.htm medline plus pituitary apoplexy

http://www.nytimes.com/health/guides/disease/pituitary-infarction/overview.html new york times pituitary infarction

https://www.verywell.com/how-a-pituitary-tumor-may-cause-a-severe-headache-1719585 very well how a pituitary tumor may cause a severe headache

https://www.symptoma.com/en/info/pituitary-apoplexy symptoma pituitary apoplexy


Advanced information:

http://emedicine.medscape.com/article/1198279-overview medscape pituitary apoplexy

http://www.medbullets.com/step1-endocrine/9067/pituitary-apoplexy medbullets pituitary apoplexy

http://www.radiologyteacher.com/index.cgi?&nav=view&datid=1204 radiology teacher pituitary apoplexy



https://www.hindawi.com/journals/crinm/2015/645370/ yu-ichiro ohnishi, yasunori fujimoto, koichi iwatsuki, and toshiki yoshimine, “a case of apoplexy of rathke’s cleft cyst followed by cerebral infarction,” case reports in neurological medicine, vol. 2015, article id 645370, 8 pages, 2015. doi:10.1155/2015/645370

gupta v, patil s, raval d, gopani p. pituitary apoplexy presenting as myocardial infarction. indian j endocr metab [serial online] 2014 [cited 2017 jan 2];18:232-3. available from: http://www.ijem.in/text.asp?2014/18/2/232/129119

khandelwal m, chhabra a, krishnan s. pituitary apoplexy following bilateral total knee arthroplasty. j postgrad med [serial online] 2005 [cited 2017 jan 2];51:155-6. available from: http://www.jpgmonline.com/text.asp?2005/51/2/155/16391

raina s, jearth v, sharma a, sharma r, mistry k. postpartum pituitary apoplexy with isolated oculomotor nerve palsy: a rare medical emergency. j neurosci rural pract [serial online] 2015 [cited 2017 jan 2];6:598-600. available from: http://www.ruralneuropractice.com/text.asp?2015/6/4/598/165348

http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=s0004-282x2010000500028 arq. neuro-psiquiatr. vol.68 no.5 são paulo oct. 2010 http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/s0004-282x2010000500028 letter:midbrain hemorrhage mimicking pituitary apoplexy in patient using anticoagulation therapy by leonardo m. batista et al.,

lath r, rajshekhar v. massive cerebral infarction as a feature of pituitary apoplexy. neurol india [serial online] 2001 [cited 2017 jan 2];49:191. available from: http://www.neurologyindia.com/text.asp?2001/49/2/191/1265

singh p, singh m, cugati g, singh ak. bromocriptine or cabergoline induced pituitary apoplexy: rare but life-threatening catastrophe. j hum reprod sci [serial online] 2011 [cited 2017 jan 2];4:59. available from: http://www.jhrsonline.org/text.asp?2011/4/1/59/82367

http://www.jebmh.com/data_pdf/indira%20niranjan----final.pdf madhukar v, indira n, ramprakash h. v. “imaging in pituitary apoplexy”. journal of evidence based medicine and healthcare; volume 2, issue 39, september 28, 2015; page: 6549-6554, doi: 10.18410/jebmh/2015/893

https://www.hindawi.com/journals/ije/2016/7951536/ adriana albani, francesco ferraù, filippo flavio angileri, et al., “multidisciplinary management of pituitary apoplexy,” international journal of endocrinology, vol. 2016, article id 7951536, 11 pages, 2016. doi:10.1155/2016/7951536

http://jmedicalcasereports.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/1752-1947-5-284 pituitary apoplexy following shoulder arthroplasty: a case report by savitha madhusudhan et al., journal of medical case reports20115:284 doi: 10.1186/1752-1947-5-284

diyora b, nayak n, kukreja s, kamble h. sudden onset isolated complete third nerve palsy due to pituitary apoplexy. oman j ophthalmol [serial online] 2011 [cited 2017 jan 2];4:32-4. available from: http://www.ojoonline.org/text.asp?2011/4/1/32/77661

parihar v, yadav y r, sharma d. pituitary apoplexy in a pregnant woman. ann indian acad neurol [serial online] 2009 [cited 2017 jan 2];12:54-5. available from: http://www.annalsofian.org/text.asp?2009/12/1/54/48861

garg m k, singh g, brar k s, kharb s. pituitary calcification masquerading as pituitary apoplexy. indian j endocr metab [serial online] 2013 [cited 2017 jan 2];17, suppl s3:703-5. available from: http://www.ijem.in/text.asp?2013/17/9/703/123573

ahmad fu, pandey p, mahapatra ak. post operative 'pituitary apoplexy' in giant pituitary adenomas: a series of cases. neurol india [serial online] 2005 [cited 2017 jan 2];53:326-8. available from: http://www.neurologyindia.com/text.asp?2005/53/3/326/16933

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/pmc3183518/ ranabir s, baruah mp. pituitary apoplexy. indian journal of endocrinology and metabolism. 2011;15(suppl3):s188-s196. doi:10.4103/2230-8210.84862.

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/pmc4263799/ boellis a, di napoli a, romano a, bozzao a. pituitary apoplexy: an update on clinical and imaging features. insights into imaging. 2014;5(6):753-762. doi:10.1007/s13244-014-0362-0.

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/pmc2588219/ kim jp, park bj, kim sb, lim yj. pituitary apoplexy due to pituitary adenoma infarction. journal of korean neurosurgical society. 2008;43(5):246-249. doi:10.3340/jkns.2008.43.5.246.

https://www.hindawi.com/journals/ije/2016/7951536/ adriana albani, francesco ferraù, filippo flavio angileri, et al., “multidisciplinary management of pituitary apoplexy,” international journal of endocrinology, vol. 2016, article id 7951536, 11 pages, 2016. doi:10.1155/2016/7951536


Related videos:

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=so0yl3kcz9o mri of pituitary macroadenoma with apoplexy

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=fy7p1bhg1p0 pituitary gland & pituitary tumors: an overview - updated version available

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=5qsah8q0lke hypopituitarism

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=_obreouonnm pituitary apoplexy

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=fu-fvb4i8d0 pituitary apoplexy: endoscopic removal & reconstruction

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