Last Reviewed : 12/24/2020

Periodontitis, also known as pyorrhea, is a set of inflammatory diseases affecting the periodontium, i.e., the tissues that surround and support the teeth. Periodontitis involves progressive loss of the alveolar bone around the teeth, and if left untreated, can lead to the loosening and subsequent loss of teeth. Periodontitis is caused by microorganisms that adhere to and grow on the tooth's surfaces, along with an over-aggressive immune response against these microorganisms. A diagnosis of periodontitis is established by inspecting the soft gum tissues around the teeth with a probe (i.e., a clinical examination) and by evaluating the patient's X-ray films (i.e., a radiographic examination), to determine the amount of bone loss around the teeth. Specialists in the treatment of periodontitis are periodontists; their field is known as "periodontology" or "periodontics".

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Basic information: mayoclinic periodontitis european federation of periodontology periodontitis medline plus periodontitis web md gingivitis and periodontal disease (gum disease) merck manuals (professional version) periodontitis live science gingivitis & periodontitis: symptoms & treatment of gum disease news medical what is periodontitis? nhs uk gum disease health central periodontitis new york times periodontitis


Advanced information: medical news today what is periodontitis? what causes periodontitis? national institute of dental and cranio facial research periodontal (gum) disease: causes, symptoms, and treatments colgate professional periodontitis perioascis periodontitis britannica periodontitis patient dental plaque and gum disease medscape periodontitis seen related to elevated risk of first mi


Research: t. roshna and k. nandakumar, “generalized aggressive periodontitis and its treatment options: case reports and review of the literature,” case reports in medicine, vol. 2012, article id 535321, 17 pages, 2012. doi:10.1155/2012/535321

grover hs, luthra s. molecular mechanisms involved in the bidirectional relationship between diabetes mellitus and periodontal disease. j indian soc periodontol [serial online] 2013 [cited 2016 oct 11];17:292-301. available from: boillot a, el halabi b, batty gd, range´ h, czernichow s, et al. (2011) education as a predictor of chronic periodontitis: a systematic review with metaanalysis population-based studies. plos one 6(7): e21508. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0021508 review article front. public health, 29 january 2015 | mechanisms involved in the association between periodontitis and complications in pregnancy by marcela yang hui et al.,

nath sg, raveendran r. "what is there in a name?": a literature review on chronic and aggressive periodontitis. j indian soc periodontol [serial online] 2011 [cited 2016 oct 11];15:318-22. available from: periodontitis: from microbial immune subversion to systemic inflammation by george hajishengallis nature reviews immunology 15,30–44(2015)doi:10.1038/nri3785 treatment of periodontitis and endothelial function by maurizio s. tonetti, d.m.d., ph.d. et al., n engl j med 2007; 356:911-920march 1, 2007doi: 10.1056/nejmoa063186 towards microbiome transplant as a therapy for periodontitis: an exploratory study of periodontitis microbial signature contrasted by oral health, caries and edentulism by alex e. pozhitkov et al., bmc oral health201515:125 doi: 10.1186/s12903-015-0109-4 prevalence of periodontitis in adults in the united states: 2009 and 2010 by p.i. eke et al., doi:10.1177/0022034512457373jdr august 30, 20120022034512457373 igari k, kudo t, toyofuku t, inoue y and iwai t. association between periodontitis and the development of systemic diseases. oral biol dent. 2014; 2:4. role of salivary matrix metalloproteinase-8 (mmp-8) in chronic periodontitis diagnosis gupta, n., gupta, n.d., gupta, a. et al. front. med. (2015) 9: 72. doi:10.1007/s11684-014-0347-x vilana maria adriano araújo, iracema matos melo, and vilma lima, “relationship between periodontitis and rheumatoid arthritis: review of the literature,” mediators of inflammation, vol. 2015, article id 259074, 15 pages, 2015. doi:10.1155/2015/259074 periodontal dysbiosis linked to periodontitis is associated with cardio-metabolic adaptation to high-fat diet in mice by maxime branchereau et al., american journal of physiology - gastrointestinal and liver physiology published 31 march 2016 vol. no. , doi: 10.1152/ajpgi.00424.2015


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