Pelvic Inflammatory Disease(PID)

Pelvic Inflammatory Disease(PID)

Last Reviewed : 12/24/2020

Pelvic inflammatory disease or pelvic inflammatory disorder (PID) is an infection of the upper part of the female reproductive system namely the uterus, fallopian tubes, and ovaries, and inside of the pelvis. Often there may be no symptoms. Signs and symptoms, when present may include lower abdominal pain, vaginal discharge, fever, burning with urination, pain with sex, or irregular menstruation. Untreated PID can result in long term complications including infertility, ectopic pregnancy, chronic pelvic pain, and cancer.

The disease is caused by bacteria that spread from the vagina and cervix. Infections by Neisseria gonorrhoeae or Chlamydia trachomatis are present in 75 to 90 percent of cases. Often multiple different bacteria are involved. Without treatment about 10 percent of those with a chlamydial infection and 40 percent of those with a gonorrhea infection will develop PID. Risk factors are similar to those of sexually transmitted infections generally and include a high number of sexual partners and drug use.Vaginal douching may also increase the risk. The diagnosis is typically based on the presenting signs and symptoms. It is recommended that the disease be considered in all women of childbearing age who have lower abdominal pain. A definitive diagnosis of PID is made by finding pus involving the fallopian tubes during surgery. Ultrasound may also be useful in diagnosis.

Efforts to prevent the disease include not having sex or having few sexual partners and using condoms. Screening women at risk for chlamydial infection followed by treatment decreases the risk of PID. If the diagnosis is suspected, treatment is typically advised. Treating a woman's sexual partners should also occur. In those with mild or moderate symptoms a single injection of the antibiotic ceftriaxone along with two weeks of doxycycline and possibly metronidazole by mouth is recommended. For those who do not improve after three days or who have severe disease intravenous antibiotics should be used.

Globally about 106 million cases of chlamydia and 106 million cases of gonorrhea occurred in 2008. The number of cases of PID however, is not clear. It is estimated to affect about 1.5 percent of young women yearly. In the United States PID is estimated to affect about one million people yearly. A type of intrauterine device (IUD) known as the Dalkon shield led to increased rates of PID in the 1970s. Current IUDs are not associated with this problem after the first month

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Basic information: web md pelvic inflammatory disease healthline pelvic inflammatory disease (pid) medline plus pelvic inflammatory disease mayo clinic pelvic inflammatory disease nhs uk pelvic inflammatory disease university of maryland medical center pelvic inflammatory disease better health pelvic inflammatory disease,-cervicitis,-and-pelvic-inflammatory-disease-pid/pelvic-inflammatory-disease-pid merck manuals(professional version) pelvic inflammatory disease kids health pelvic inflammatory disease national institute of allergy and infectious diseases pelvic inflammatory disease bupa pelvic inflammatory disease cleveland clinic pelvic inflammatory disease (pid) healthy children pelvic inflammatory disease life in the fast lane pelvic inflammatory disease health direct pelvic inflammatory disease very well overview of pelvic inflammatory disease (pid)


Advanced information: medicine net pelvic inflammatory disease medical news today what is pelvic inflammatory disease? patient pelvic inflammatory disease medscape pelvic inflammatory disease medscape pelvic inflammatory disease treatment & management emedicine health pelvic inflammatory disease pelvic inflammatory disease by margaret gradison, md, mhs-cl, duke university medical center, durham, north carolina am fam physician. 2012 apr 15;85(8):791-796. radiopedia pelvic inflammatory disease health communities pelvic inflammatory disease australian sti guidelines pelvic inflammatory disease pediatrics clerckship pelvic inflammatory disease britannica pelvic inflammatory disease australian contact tracing guidelines pelvic inflammatory disease contact tracing


Research: prevalence of chlamydia trachomatis in human immunodeficiency virus-infected women in cuba vol. 97(8): 1073-1077, december 2002 by vivian kouri/ kevin c. ching and jules h. sumkin, “transvaginal drainage of pelvic abscesses and collections using transabdominal ultrasound guidance,” obstetrics and gynecology international, vol. 2015, article id 283576, 4 pages, 2015. doi:10.1155/2015/283576 bette liu, basil donovan, jane s. hocking, janet knox, bronwyn silver, and rebecca guy, “improving adherence to guidelines for the diagnosis and management of pelvic inflammatory disease: a systematic review,” infectious diseases in obstetrics and gynecology, vol. 2012, article id 325108, 6 pages, 2012. doi:10.1155/2012/325108 catherine l. satterwhite, onchee yu, marsha a. raebel, et al., “detection of pelvic inflammatory disease: development of an automated case-finding algorithm using administrative data,” infectious diseases in obstetrics and gynecology, vol. 2011, article id 428351, 7 pages, 2011. doi:10.1155/2011/428351 community-based trial of screening for chlamydia trachomatis to prevent pelvic inflammatory disease: the popi (prevention of pelvic infection) trial by pippa oakeshott et al., trials20089:73 doi: 10.1186/1745-6215-9-73 richard khafagy, omar jundi, karol rogawski, and siva namasiviyam, “persistent ureteric dilatation due to pelvic actinomycosis presenting as pelvic inflammatory disease,” case reports in nephrology, vol. 2011, article id 186708, 2 pages, 2011. doi:10.1155/2011/186708 mucosal immunology (2016) 9, 1051–1064; doi:10.1038/mi.2015.122; published online 23 december 2015 the reproductive cycle is a pathogenic determinant during gonococcal pelvic inflammatory disease in mice by e a islam et al., pelvic inflammatory disease: new diagnostic criteria and treatment by richard beigi et al., obstetrics and gynecology clinics of north america 30(4):777-93 january 2004 doi: 10.1016/s0889-8545(03)00088-3 source: pubmed


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Other helpful resources(support groups): american sexual health association


Related videos: pelvic inflammatory disease pelvic inflammatory disease - patient education video pelvic inflammatory disease part i pelvic inflammatory disease part ii cdc pelvic inflammatory disease pelvic inflammatory disease reference pelvic inflammatory disease pelvic inflammatory disease


Presentations/quiz/newspaper articles: daily mail the silent epidemic that can leave women infertile - but often has no symptoms

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follow us: @mailonline on twitter | dailymail on facebook medical daily pelvic inflammatory disease kills more women in new york, double the national average the conversation chronic pain and infertility: the trauma of untreated pelvic inflammatory disease

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