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Pelvic Inflammatory Disease(PID)

Pelvic Inflammatory Disease(PID)

Last Reviewed : 12/24/2020

Pelvic inflammatory disease or pelvic inflammatory disorder (PID) is an infection of the upper part of the female reproductive system namely the uterus, fallopian tubes, and ovaries, and inside of the pelvis. Often there may be no symptoms. Signs and symptoms, when present may include lower abdominal pain, vaginal discharge, fever, burning with urination, pain with sex, or irregular menstruation. Untreated PID can result in long term complications including infertility, ectopic pregnancy, chronic pelvic pain, and cancer.

The disease is caused by bacteria that spread from the vagina and cervix. Infections by Neisseria gonorrhoeae or Chlamydia trachomatis are present in 75 to 90 percent of cases. Often multiple different bacteria are involved. Without treatment about 10 percent of those with a chlamydial infection and 40 percent of those with a gonorrhea infection will develop PID. Risk factors are similar to those of sexually transmitted infections generally and include a high number of sexual partners and drug use.Vaginal douching may also increase the risk. The diagnosis is typically based on the presenting signs and symptoms. It is recommended that the disease be considered in all women of childbearing age who have lower abdominal pain. A definitive diagnosis of PID is made by finding pus involving the fallopian tubes during surgery. Ultrasound may also be useful in diagnosis.

Efforts to prevent the disease include not having sex or having few sexual partners and using condoms. Screening women at risk for chlamydial infection followed by treatment decreases the risk of PID. If the diagnosis is suspected, treatment is typically advised. Treating a woman's sexual partners should also occur. In those with mild or moderate symptoms a single injection of the antibiotic ceftriaxone along with two weeks of doxycycline and possibly metronidazole by mouth is recommended. For those who do not improve after three days or who have severe disease intravenous antibiotics should be used.

Globally about 106 million cases of chlamydia and 106 million cases of gonorrhea occurred in 2008. The number of cases of PID however, is not clear. It is estimated to affect about 1.5 percent of young women yearly. In the United States PID is estimated to affect about one million people yearly. A type of intrauterine device (IUD) known as the Dalkon shield led to increased rates of PID in the 1970s. Current IUDs are not associated with this problem after the first month

We researched this topic for you and found the following best online resources. They are categorized into basic, advanced, and research level based on the extent of information you need. You will be taken to the respective websites by pressing on the links below.

 

 

 

Basic information:

http://www.webmd.com/women/guide/sexual-health-your-guide-to-pelvic-inflammatory-disease web md pelvic inflammatory disease

http://www.healthline.com/health/pelvic-inflammatory-disease-pid healthline pelvic inflammatory disease (pid)

https://medlineplus.gov/ency/article/000888.htm medline plus pelvic inflammatory disease

http://www.mayoclinic.org/diseases-conditions/pelvic-inflammatory-disease/basics/definition/con-20022341 mayo clinic pelvic inflammatory disease

http://www.nhs.uk/conditions/pelvic-inflammatory-disease/pages/introduction.aspx nhs uk pelvic inflammatory disease

http://umm.edu/health/medical/altmed/condition/pelvic-inflammatory-disease university of maryland medical center pelvic inflammatory disease

https://www.betterhealth.vic.gov.au/health/healthyliving/pelvic-inflammatory-disease-pid better health pelvic inflammatory disease

http://www.merckmanuals.com/professional/gynecology-and-obstetrics/vaginitis,-cervicitis,-and-pelvic-inflammatory-disease-pid/pelvic-inflammatory-disease-pid merck manuals(professional version) pelvic inflammatory disease

http://kidshealth.org/en/teens/std-pid.html kids health pelvic inflammatory disease

https://www.niaid.nih.gov/topics/pelvicinflammatorydisease/pages/default.aspx national institute of allergy and infectious diseases pelvic inflammatory disease

http://www.bupa.co.uk/health-information/directory/p/pelvic-inflammatory-disease bupa pelvic inflammatory disease

http://my.clevelandclinic.org/health/diseases_conditions/hic_sexually_transmitted_diseases_an_overview/hic_pelvic_inflammatory_disease cleveland clinic pelvic inflammatory disease (pid)

https://www.healthychildren.org/english/health-issues/conditions/sexually-transmitted/pages/pelvic-inflammatory-disease.aspx healthy children pelvic inflammatory disease

http://lifeinthefastlane.com/ccc/pelvic-inflammatory-disease-pid/ life in the fast lane pelvic inflammatory disease

http://www.healthdirect.gov.au/pelvic-inflammatory-disease health direct pelvic inflammatory disease

https://www.verywell.com/what-is-pelvic-inflammatory-disease-pid-1959925 very well overview of pelvic inflammatory disease (pid)

 

Advanced information:

http://www.medicinenet.com/pelvic_inflammatory_disease/article.htm medicine net pelvic inflammatory disease

http://www.medicalnewstoday.com/articles/177923.php medical news today what is pelvic inflammatory disease?

http://patient.info/in/health/pelvic-inflammatory-disease-leaflet patient pelvic inflammatory disease

http://emedicine.medscape.com/article/256448-overview medscape pelvic inflammatory disease

http://emedicine.medscape.com/article/256448-treatment medscape pelvic inflammatory disease treatment & management

http://www.emedicinehealth.com/pelvic_inflammatory_disease/article_em.htm emedicine health pelvic inflammatory disease

http://www.aafp.org/afp/2012/0415/p791.html pelvic inflammatory disease by margaret gradison, md, mhs-cl, duke university medical center, durham, north carolina am fam physician. 2012 apr 15;85(8):791-796.

http://radiopaedia.org/articles/pelvic-inflammatory-disease radiopedia pelvic inflammatory disease

http://www.healthcommunities.com/pelvic-inflammatory-disease-pid/treatment.shtml health communities pelvic inflammatory disease

http://www.sti.guidelines.org.au/syndromes/pid-pelvic-inflammatory-disease#follow-up australian sti guidelines pelvic inflammatory disease

https://pedclerk.bsd.uchicago.edu/page/pelvic-inflammatory-disease-pid pediatrics clerckship pelvic inflammatory disease

https://www.britannica.com/science/pelvic-inflammatory-disease britannica pelvic inflammatory disease

http://contacttracing.ashm.org.au/conditions/when-contact-tracing-should-be-considered/pelvic-inflammatory-disease-pid australian contact tracing guidelines pelvic inflammatory disease contact tracing

 

Research:

http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=s0074-02762002000800001 http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/s0074-02762002000800001 prevalence of chlamydia trachomatis in human immunodeficiency virus-infected women in cuba vol. 97(8): 1073-1077, december 2002 by vivian kouri/

http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ogi/2015/283576/ kevin c. ching and jules h. sumkin, “transvaginal drainage of pelvic abscesses and collections using transabdominal ultrasound guidance,” obstetrics and gynecology international, vol. 2015, article id 283576, 4 pages, 2015. doi:10.1155/2015/283576

http://www.hindawi.com/journals/idog/2012/325108/ bette liu, basil donovan, jane s. hocking, janet knox, bronwyn silver, and rebecca guy, “improving adherence to guidelines for the diagnosis and management of pelvic inflammatory disease: a systematic review,” infectious diseases in obstetrics and gynecology, vol. 2012, article id 325108, 6 pages, 2012. doi:10.1155/2012/325108

http://www.hindawi.com/journals/idog/2011/428351/ catherine l. satterwhite, onchee yu, marsha a. raebel, et al., “detection of pelvic inflammatory disease: development of an automated case-finding algorithm using administrative data,” infectious diseases in obstetrics and gynecology, vol. 2011, article id 428351, 7 pages, 2011. doi:10.1155/2011/428351

http://trialsjournal.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/1745-6215-9-73 community-based trial of screening for chlamydia trachomatis to prevent pelvic inflammatory disease: the popi (prevention of pelvic infection) trial by pippa oakeshott et al., trials20089:73 doi: 10.1186/1745-6215-9-73

http://www.hindawi.com/journals/crin/2011/186708/ richard khafagy, omar jundi, karol rogawski, and siva namasiviyam, “persistent ureteric dilatation due to pelvic actinomycosis presenting as pelvic inflammatory disease,” case reports in nephrology, vol. 2011, article id 186708, 2 pages, 2011. doi:10.1155/2011/186708

http://www.nature.com/mi/journal/v9/n4/full/mi2015122a.html mucosal immunology (2016) 9, 1051–1064; doi:10.1038/mi.2015.122; published online 23 december 2015 the reproductive cycle is a pathogenic determinant during gonococcal pelvic inflammatory disease in mice by e a islam et al.,

https://www.researchgate.net/publication/8921479_pelvic_inflammatory_disease_new_diagnostic_criteria_and_treatment pelvic inflammatory disease: new diagnostic criteria and treatment by richard beigi et al., obstetrics and gynecology clinics of north america 30(4):777-93 january 2004 doi: 10.1016/s0889-8545(03)00088-3 source: pubmed

 

Related topics:

http://www.top10homeremedies.com/home-remedies/home-remedies-for-pelvic-inflammatory-disease.html top 10 home remedies home remedies for pelvic inflammatory disease

 

Other helpful resources(support groups):

http://www.ashasexualhealth.org/stdsstis/pid/ american sexual health association

 

Related videos:

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=u1dcb8hikva pelvic inflammatory disease

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=lguxf8vpujq pelvic inflammatory disease - patient education video

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=qsfgoqxn8h8 pelvic inflammatory disease part i

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=-q0nvl6pqpi pelvic inflammatory disease part ii

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=rnbi6apbhhc cdc pelvic inflammatory disease

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=w3d2kppaah4 pelvic inflammatory disease reference

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=tmrec4v3lfw pelvic inflammatory disease

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=sk7k_qt-1wk pelvic inflammatory disease

 

Presentations/quiz/newspaper articles:

http://www.dailymail.co.uk/health/article-3447808/the-silent-epidemic-leave-women-infertile-no-symptoms.html daily mail the silent epidemic that can leave women infertile - but often has no symptoms

read more: http://www.dailymail.co.uk/health/article-3447808/the-silent-epidemic-leave-women-infertile-no-symptoms.html#ixzz4hekgwqln
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http://www.medicaldaily.com/pelvic-inflammatory-disease-kills-more-women-new-york-double-national-average-333692 medical daily pelvic inflammatory disease kills more women in new york, double the national average

http://theconversation.com/chronic-pain-and-infertility-the-trauma-of-untreated-pelvic-inflammatory-disease-45822 the conversation chronic pain and infertility: the trauma of untreated pelvic inflammatory disease

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