Parkinsons Disease

Parkinsons Disease

Last Reviewed : 12/24/2020
Parkinsons Disease


Also called: Paralysis agitans, Shaking palsy

Parkinson's disease (PD) is a degenerative disorder of the central nervous system mainly affecting the motor system. Early in the course of the disease, the most obvious symptoms are movement-related; these include shaking, rigidity, slowness of movementand difficulty with walking and gait. Later, thinking and behavioral problems may arise, with dementia commonly occurring in the advanced stages of the disease, and depression being the most common psychiatric symptom. Other symptoms include sensory,sleep, and emotional problems. The main motor symptoms are collectively called "parkinsonism", or a "parkinsonian syndrome".

The disease can be either primary or secondary. Primary Parkinson's disease has no known cause, although some atypical cases have a genetic origin. Secondary parkinsonism is due to known causes like toxins. Many risks and protective factors have been investigated: the clearest evidence is for an increased risk in people exposed to certain pesticides and a reduced risk in tobacco smokers. The motor symptoms of the disease result from the death of cells in the substantia nigra, a region of the midbrain. This results in not enough dopamine in these areas. The reason for this cell death are poorly understood but involves the build-up ofproteins into Lewy bodies in the neurons. Where the Lewy bodies are located is partly related to the expression and degree of the symptoms. Diagnosis of typical cases is mainly based on symptoms, with tests such as neuroimaging being used for confirmation.

Treatments, typically the antiparkinson medications L-DOPA and dopamine agonists, improve the early symptoms of the disease. As the disease progresses and neurons continue to be lost, these medications become ineffective while at the same time produce acomplication marked by involuntary writhing movements. Diet and some forms of rehabilitation have shown some effectiveness at improving symptoms. Surgery to place deep brain stimulation have been used to reduce motor symptoms in severe cases where drugs are ineffective. Research directions include investigations into new animal models of the disease and of the potential usefulness of gene therapy, stem cell transplants, and neuroprotective agents. Medications to treat non-movement-related symptoms of PD, such as sleep disturbances and emotional problems, also exist.

In 2013 PD was present in 53 million people and resulted in about 103,000 deaths globally. Parkinson's disease is more common in older people, with most cases occurring after the age of 50; when it is seen in young adults, it is called young onset PD. The disease is named after the English doctor James Parkinson, who published the first detailed description in An Essay on the Shaking Palsy, in 1817. Several major organizations promote research and improvement of quality of life of those with the disease and their families. Public awareness campaigns include Parkinson's disease day (on the birthday of James Parkinson, 11 April) and the use of a red tulip as the symbol of the disease. People with parkinsonism who have increased the public's awareness of the condition include actor Michael J. Fox, Olympic cyclist Davis Phinney, and professional boxer Muhammad Ali.

We researched this topic for you and found the following best online resources. They are categorized into basic, advanced, and research level based on the extent of information you need. You will be taken to the respective websites by pressing on the links below.


Basic information: parkinsons disease foundation parkinson's disease parkinson's disease parkinson's disease national institute of neurological disorders and stroke parkinson's disease parkinson's disease parkinson's disease parkinson's disease parkinson's disease parkinson's disease parkinson's disease parkinson's disease parkinson’s disease: guide to caregiving parkinson's disease parkinson's disease


Advanced information: parkinson's disease parkinson's disease parkinson's disease parkinson's disease parkinson's disease parkinson's disease and sleep parkinson's disease parkinson's disease parkinsons disease clinic and research center parkinson’s disease medications euro stemcell parkinson’s disease: how could stem cells help? parkinson disease, late-onset; pd mayfield parkinson's disease statistics canada parkinson's disease: prevalence, diagnosis and impact by suzy l. wong, heather gilmour and pamela l. ramage-morin


Research: association of coffee and caffeine intake with the risk of parkinson disease by g. webster ross, md et al., jama. 2000;283(20):2674-2679. doi:10.1001/jama.283.20.2674 a randomized trial of deep-brain stimulation for parkinson's disease by günther deuschl, m.d., ph.d et al., n engl j med 2006; 355:896-908august 31, 2006doi: 10.1056/nejmoa060281 j neurol neurosurg psychiatry 2008;79:368-376 doi:10.1136/jnnp.2007.131045 review:parkinson’s disease: clinical features and diagnosis by j jankovic lysosomal function in macromolecular homeostasis and bioenergetics in parkinson's disease by lonnie schneider and jianhua zhang molecular neurodegeneration20105:14 doi: 10.1186/1750-1326-5-14 serum autoantibodies as biomarkers for parkinsons disease: background and utility by cassandra a demarshall et al., aims medical science, 2015, 2(4): 316-327. doi: 10.3934/medsci.2015.4.316 review article: noradrenaline and parkinson’s disease by claire delaville et al.,front. syst. neurosci., 18 may 2011 |

rana aq, saleh m, yousuf ms, mansoor w, hussaini s, rahman m, iqbal z. dopa-sparing strategy in the treatment of young onset parkinson's disease. j neurosci rural pract [serial online] 2016 [cited 2016 may 11];7:67-9. available from: arq. neuro-psiquiatr. vol.60 no.4 são paulo dec. 2002 sistematic review of stereotactic posteroventral pallidotomy in the treatment of parkinson's disease (abstract)*. thesis. são paulo, 2001. by marcelo ken – iti hisatugo arq. neuro-psiquiatr. vol.67 no.3b são paulo sept. 2009 neuropsychiatry of parkinson's disease by arthur kummer; antonio lucio teixeira ciênc. saúde coletiva vol.16 no.11 rio de janeiro nov. 2011 manganese and parkinson's disease: a critical review and new findings by tomás r. guilarte eye movement impairments in parkinson's disease: possible role of extradopaminergic mechanisms by elmar h pinkhardt et al., bmc neurologybmc series ¿ open, inclusive and trusted201212:5 doi: 10.1186/1471-2377-12-5 arq. neuro-psiquiatr. vol.66 no.3b são paulo 2008 use of clozapine in brazilian patients with parkinson's disease by laura gomide et al clinical characteristics of fatigued parkinson’s patients and the response to dopaminergic treatment by rao fu et al.,translational neurodegeneration20165:9 doi: 10.1186/s40035-016-0056-2 efficacy and acceptability of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors for the treatment of depression in parkinson's disease: a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials by petros skapinakis et al., bmc neurologybmc series ¿ open, inclusive and trusted201010:49 doi: 10.1186/1471-2377-10-49 the quality of care delivered to parkinson's disease patients in the u.s. pacific northwest veterans health system by kari swarztraube,eric graf and eric cheng bmc neurologybmc series ¿ open, inclusive and trusted20066:26 doi: 10.1186/1471-2377-6-26 pharmaceuticals 2010, 3(6), 1812-1841; doi:10.3390/ph3061812 review:non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs in alzheimer's disease and parkinson's disease: reconsidering the role of neuroinflammation by amy h. moore


Other helpful resources(support groups): national parkinson foundation parkinsons australia american parkinsons disease association parkinsons disease foundation of india


Related videos: what are the symptoms of parkinson's disease? - ask the experts early parkinson's disease parkinsons disease a guide for patients and families fox8 treatment options for patients with parkinson’s disease parkinson's disease movement signs and symptoms of parkinsons disease parkinson's disease parkinsons disease and dopamine parkinson's disease: how is the brain affected?


Presentations/quiz/newspaper articles: bbc news parkinson's disease: 'many patients hide symptoms 18 april 2016 the age victoria pesticides to blame? parkinson's disease cluster in north-west farming region




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