obesity
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Obesity

Obesity

Last Reviewed : 12/24/2020
Obesity

Obesity is a medical condition in which excess body fat has accumulated to the extent that it may have a negative effect on health. People are generally considered obese when their body mass index (BMI), a measurement obtained by dividing a person's weight by the square of the person's height, is over 30 kg/m2, with the range 25–30 kg/m2 defined as overweight. Some East Asian countries use lower values. Obesity increases the likelihood of various diseases, particularly heart disease,type 2 diabetes, obstructive sleep apnea, certain types of cancer, and osteoarthritis.

Obesity is most commonly caused by a combination of excessive food intake, lack of physical activity, and genetic susceptibility. A few cases are caused primarily by genes, endocrine disorders, medications, or mental illness. Evidence to support the view that obese people eat little yet gain weight due to a slow metabolism is not generally supported.[6] On average, obese people have a greater energy expenditure than their thin counterparts due to the energy required to maintain an increased body mass.

Obesity is mostly preventable through a combination of social changes and personal choices. Changes to diet andexercising are the main treatments. Diet quality can be improved by reducing the consumption of energy-dense foods, such as those high in fat and sugars, and by increasing the intake of dietary fiber. Medications may be taken, along with a suitable diet, to reduce appetite or decrease fat absorption. If diet, exercise, and medication are not effective, a gastric balloon or surgery may be performed to reduce stomach volume or bowel length, leading to feeling full earlier or a reduced ability to absorb nutrients from food.

Obesity is a leading preventable cause of death worldwide, with increasing rates in adults and children. In 2014, 600 million adults (13%) and 42 million children under the age of five were obese. Obesity is more common in women than men. Authorities view it as one of the most serious public health problems of the 21st century. Obesity is stigmatized in much of the modern world (particularly in the Western world), though it was seen as a symbol of wealth and fertility at other times in history and still is in some parts of the world. In 2013, the American Medical Association classified obesity as a disease.

We researched this topic for you and found the following best online resources. They are categorized into basic, advanced, and research level based on the extent of information you need. You will be taken to the respective websites by pressing on the links below.

 

 

Basic information:

http://www.nhs.uk/conditions/obesity/pages/introduction.aspx nhs uk obesity

http://www.webmd.com/diet/obesity/what-obesity-is web md what is obesity?

https://www.healthychildren.org/english/health-issues/conditions/obesity/pages/default.aspx healthy children obesity

http://www.mayoclinic.org/diseases-conditions/obesity/basics/definition/con-20014834 mayo clinic obesity

https://www.healthdirect.gov.au/obesity health direct obesity

http://bodyandhealth.canada.com/condition/getcondition/obesity canada obesity

http://www.news-medical.net/health/what-is-obesity.aspx news medical obesity

http://www.healthline.com/health/weight-loss/obesity health line morbid obesity

 

Advanced information:

http://www.medicalnewstoday.com/info/obesity medical news today what is obesity?

http://www.who.int/mediacentre/factsheets/fs311/en/ who obesity and overweight

https://www.niddk.nih.gov/health-information/health-statistics/pages/overweight-obesity-statistics.aspx national institute for diabetes and digestive and kidney disorders overweight and obesity statistics

http://emedicine.medscape.com/article/123702-overview medscape obesity

http://www.medicinenet.com/obesity_weight_loss/article.htm medicine net obesity

http://www.emedicinehealth.com/obesity/article_em.htm emedicine health obesity

http://patient.info/health/obesity-and-overweight-in-adults patient obesity and overweight in adults

 

Research:

https://www.hindawi.com/journals/jobe/2014/983495/ tracy l. tylka, rachel a. annunziato, deb burgard, et al., “the weight-inclusive versus weight-normative approach to health: evaluating the evidence for prioritizing well-being over weight loss,” journal of obesity, vol. 2014, article id 983495, 18 pages, 2014. doi:10.1155/2014/983495

http://journal.frontiersin.org/article/10.3389/fphys.2015.00341/full review article front. physiol., 19 november 2015 | http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fphys.2015.00341 obesity-driven gut microbiota inflammatory pathways to metabolic syndrome by luiz h. a. cavalcante-silva et al.,

https://www.hindawi.com/journals/mi/2013/808125/ rossana scrivo, massimiliano vasile, ulf müller-ladner, elena neumann, and guido valesini, “rheumatic diseases and obesity: adipocytokines as potential comorbidity biomarkers for cardiovascular diseases,”mediators of inflammation, vol. 2013, article id 808125, 14 pages, 2013. doi:10.1155/2013/808125

https://www.hindawi.com/journals/jobe/2012/505274/ scott e. friedman and bruce w. andrus, “obesity and pulmonary hypertension: a review of pathophysiologic mechanisms,” journal of obesity, vol. 2012, article id 505274, 9 pages, 2012. doi:10.1155/2012/505274

http://bmccancer.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/1471-2407-12-23 obesity, body composition, and prostate cancer by jay h fowke et al., bmc cancer201212:23 doi: 10.1186/1471-2407-12-23

https://www.hindawi.com/journals/jobe/2013/378650/ stalo karageorgi, osama alsmadi, and kazem behbehani, “a review of adult obesity prevalence, trends, risk factors, and epidemiologic methods in kuwait,” journal of obesity, vol. 2013, article id 378650, 14 pages, 2013. doi:10.1155/2013/378650

https://www.hindawi.com/journals/ije/2013/204164/ kunihiro sakuma and akihiko yamaguchi, “sarcopenic obesity and endocrinal adaptation with age,”international journal of endocrinology, vol. 2013, article id 204164, 12 pages, 2013. doi:10.1155/2013/204164

https://www.hindawi.com/journals/jobe/2012/505274/ scott e. friedman and bruce w. andrus, “obesity and pulmonary hypertension: a review of pathophysiologic mechanisms,” journal of obesity, vol. 2012, article id 505274, 9 pages, 2012. doi:10.1155/2012/505274

https://www.hindawi.com/journals/ije/2014/670262/ francesco franceschi, rocco papalia, michele paciotti, et al., “obesity as a risk factor for tendinopathy: a systematic review,” international journal of endocrinology, vol. 2014, article id 670262, 10 pages, 2014. doi:10.1155/2014/670262

https://www.hindawi.com/journals/jobe/2013/291546/ giovanni de pergola and franco silvestris, “obesity as a major risk factor for cancer,” journal of obesity, vol. 2013, article id 291546, 11 pages, 2013. doi:10.1155/2013/291546

https://www.hindawi.com/journals/bmri/2015/274585/ seher balaban, lisa s. lee, mark schreuder, and andrew j. hoy, “obesity and cancer progression: is there a role of fatty acid metabolism?,” biomed research international, vol. 2015, article id 274585, 17 pages, 2015. doi:10.1155/2015/274585

https://www.hindawi.com/journals/jobe/2014/524939/ erica y. lau, junxiu liu, edward archer, samantha m. mcdonald, and jihong liu, “maternal weight gain in pregnancy and risk of obesity among offspring: a systematic review,” journal of obesity, vol. 2014, article id 524939, 16 pages, 2014. doi:10.1155/2014/524939

https://www.hindawi.com/journals/jobe/2014/492127/ paula ferrada, rahul j. anand, ajai malhotra, and michel aboutanos, “obesity does not increase mortality after emergency surgery,” journal of obesity, vol. 2014, article id 492127, 3 pages, 2014. doi:10.1155/2014/492127

 

Other articles:

http://www.petmd.com/dog/conditions/digestive/c_multi_obesity pet md obesity in dogs

http://www.vet.cornell.edu/fhc/health_information/obesity.cfm vet cornell obesity

 

Other helpful resources(support groups):

http://www.obesity.org/obesity/resources/facts-about-obesity/what-is-obesity what is obesity?

http://www.obesityaction.org/ obesity action coalition

http://obesityfoundationindia.com/about.htm obesity foundation of india

http://www.worldobesity.org/ world obesity federation

 

Related videos:

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=vgnbrk8pij8 obesity

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=lw9wmnnrfq8 obesity: the post mortem | behind the scenes

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ikoc3hzwe7q obesity facts and statistics

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=02bfi4zkxy0 obesity leads to death

 

 

 

 

Presentations/quiz/newspaper articles:

http://www.theatlantic.com/magazine/archive/2013/07/how-junk-food-can-end-obesity/309396/ the atlantic how junk food can end obesity

http://www.dailymail.co.uk/health/article-3769893/america-s-obesity-epidemic-laid-bare-maps-reveal-20-state-clinically-overweight.html daily mail america's obesity epidemic laid bare: maps reveal at least 20% of every state is clinically overweight

read more: http://www.dailymail.co.uk/health/article-3769893/america-s-obesity-epidemic-laid-bare-maps-reveal-20-state-clinically-overweight.html#ixzz4nlf58jsj
follow us: @mailonline on twitter | dailymail on facebook

http://indiatoday.intoday.in/story/obesity-india-weighs-third-on-obesity-scale/1/365876.html india today india the third most obese country in the world

http://www.militarytimes.com/articles/the-us-military-has-a-huge-problem-with-obesity-and-its-only-getting-worse military times the u.s. military has a huge problem with obesity and it's only getting worse

http://time.com/4359637/obesity-americans-women-men/ time 40% of u.s. women are now obese

http://www.cbsnews.com/news/obesity-in-youth-may-harm-health-later-in-life-even-after-weight-loss/ cbs news obesity in youth may harm health later in life, even after weight loss

https://www.scientificamerican.com/article/is-obesity-an-addiction/ the scientific american is obesity an addiction?

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