myoclonus
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Myoclonus

Myoclonus

Last Reviewed : 12/24/2020
Myoclonus

Myoclonus is a brief, involuntary twitching of a muscle or a group of muscles. It describes a medical sign and, generally, is not a diagnosis of a disease. These myoclonic twitches, jerks, or seizures are usually caused by sudden muscle contractions (positive myoclonus) or brief lapses of contraction (negative myoclonus). The most common circumstance under which they occur is while falling asleep (hypnic jerk). Myoclonic jerks occur in healthy persons and are experienced occasionally by everyone. However, when they appear with more persistence and become more widespread they can be a sign of various neurological disorders. Hiccups are a kind of myoclonic jerk specifically affecting the diaphragm. When a spasm is caused by another person it is known as a provoked spasm. Shuddering attacks in babies fall in this category.

Myoclonic jerks may occur alone or in sequence, in a pattern or without pattern. They may occur infrequently or many times each minute. Most often, myoclonus is one of several signs in a wide variety of nervous system disorders such as multiple sclerosis, Parkinson's disease, Dystonia, Alzheimer's disease, Gaucher's Disease, subacute sclerosing panencephalitis,Creutzfeldt–Jakob disease (CJD), serotonin toxicity, some cases of Huntington's disease, some forms of epilepsy, and occasionally in intracranial hypotension. Some researchers indicate that jerks persistently may even cause early tremors.

In almost all instances in which myoclonus is caused by central nervous system disease it is preceded by other symptoms; for instance, in CJD it is generally a late-stage clinical feature that appears after the patient has already started to exhibit gross neurological deficits.

Anatomically, myoclonus may originate from lesions of the cortex, subcortex or spinal cord. The presence of myoclonus above the foramen magnum effectively excludes spinal myoclonus; further localisation relies on further investigation with electromyography (EMG) and electroencephalography.

We researched this topic for you and found the following best online resources. They are categorized into basic, advanced, and research level based on the extent of information you need. You will be taken to the respective websites by pressing on the links below.

 

Basic information:

http://www.ninds.nih.gov/disorders/myoclonus/detail_myoclonus.htm national institute of neurological disorders and stroke myoclonus

http://www.mayoclinic.org/diseases-conditions/myoclonus/home/ovc-20166171 mayo clinic myoclonus

https://www.merckmanuals.com/professional/neurologic-disorders/movement-and-cerebellar-disorders/myoclonus merck manuals (professional version) myoclonus

https://www.msdmanuals.com/professional/neurologic-disorders/movement-and-cerebellar-disorders/myoclonus msd manuals (professional version) myoclonus

http://my.clevelandclinic.org/health/diseases_conditions/hic-myoclonus cleveland clinic myoclonus

https://www.sleepassociation.org/patients-general-public/sleep-myoclonus/ sleep association sleep myoclonus

http://www.webmd.com/epilepsy/progressive-myoclonus-epilepsy web md progressive myoclonus epilepsy

http://www.cmdg.org/movement_/myoclonus/myoclonus.htm myoclonus

http://www.aboutkidshealth.ca/en/resourcecentres/epilepsy/understandingepilepsydiagnosis/typesofseizures/pages/myoclonic-seizures.aspx about kids health myoclonus

http://www.hopkinsmedicine.org/neurology_neurosurgery/centers_clinics/epilepsy/seizures/types/myoclinc-seizures.html john hopkins medical library myoclonus

http://www.innerbody.com/diseases-conditions/myoclonus inner body myoclonus

 

Advanced information:

http://emedicine.medscape.com/article/1355567-overview medscape benign neonatal sleep myoclonus

https://rarediseases.org/rare-diseases/general-myoclonus/ national organisation for rare diseases myoclonus

http://www.medlink.com/article/myoclonic_seizures med link myoclonus

http://lifeinthefastlane.com/ccc/post-hypoxic-myoclonus-phm/ life in the fast lane post-hypoxic myoclonus (phm)

http://www.fpnotebook.com/neuro/motor/myclns.htm family practise notebook myoclonus

 

Research:

sharma cm, nath k, kumawat bl, khandelwal d. autosomal dominant cortical tremor, myoclonus, and epilepsy (adcme): probable first family from india. ann indian acad neurol [serial online] 2014 [cited 2016 oct 11];17:433-6. available from: http://www.annalsofian.org/text.asp?2014/17/4/433/144025

https://www.hindawi.com/journals/crim/2014/545490/ s. laroumagne, xavier elharrar, b. coiffard, et al., ““dancing eye syndrome” secondary to opsoclonus-myoclonus syndrome in small-cell lung cancer,” case reports in medicine, vol. 2014, article id 545490, 4 pages, 2014. doi:10.1155/2014/545490

abiramalatha t, mehndiratta s, rajeshwari k, dubey ap. piperazine citrate induced myoclonus in a child. indian j pharmacol [serial online] 2013 [cited 2016 oct 11];45:640. available from: http://www.ijp-online.com/text.asp?2013/45/6/640/121391

http://www.jebmh.com/data_pdf/davis%20manual%20-%201.pdf davis manuel, c. b. rathore, alie alexander. “clinical, neuropsychological and neurophysiological correlates of drug resistant juvenile myoclonic epilepsy”. journal of evidence based medicine and healthcare; volume 2, issue 36, september 07, 2015; page: 5658-5668, doi: 10.18410/jebmh/2015/780

sharma cm, pandey rk, kumawat bl, khandelwal d. late-onset myoclonic epilepsy in down syndrome (lomeds): a spectrum of progressive myoclonic epilepsy — case report. ann indian acad neurol [serial online] 2016 [cited 2016 oct 11];19:267-8. available from: http://www.annalsofian.org/text.asp?2016/19/2/267/173411

http://journal.frontiersin.org/article/10.3389/fneur.2012.00022/full original research article front. neurol., 20 february 2012 | http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fneur.2012.00022 deep brain stimulation of the pallidum is effective and might stabilize striatal d2receptor binding in myoclonus–dystonia by r. j. beukers et al.,

park js, park sp, seo jg. hirayama disease with juvenile myoclonic epilepsy: a case report. ann indian acad neurol [serial online] 2014 [cited 2016 oct 11];17:358-60. available from: http://www.annalsofian.org/text.asp?2014/17/3/358/138529

http://jmedicalcasereports.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.4076/1752-1947-3-7293 central neuraxial anaesthesia presenting with spinal myoclonus in the perioperative period: a case series by olumuyiwa a bamgbade et al., journal of medical case reports20093:7293 doi: 10.4076/1752-1947-3-7293

jain p, sharma s, van ruissen f, aneja s. myoclonus-dystonia: an under-recognized entity - report of 5 cases. neurol india [serial online] 2016 [cited 2016 oct 11];64:980-3. available from: http://www.neurologyindia.com/text.asp?2016/64/5/980/190255

https://www.hindawi.com/journals/crinm/2013/589154/ sofie n. de blauwe, patrick santens, and ludo j. vanopdenbosch, “anti-glycine receptor antibody mediated progressive encephalomyelitis with rigidity and myoclonus associated with breast cancer,” case reports in neurological medicine, vol. 2013, article id 589154, 4 pages, 2013. doi:10.1155/2013/589154

 

Other articles:

http://www.petmd.com/dog/conditions/musculoskeletal/c_dg_myoclonus pet md muscle contraction disease (myoclonus) in dogs

https://www.vetary.com/dog/condition/muscle-contraction-disease-myoclonus vetary muscle contraction disease (myoclonus) in dogs

read more at: https://www.vetary.com/dog/condition/muscle-contraction-disease-myoclonus

 

Other helpful resources(support groups):

https://www.epilepsysociety.org.uk/news/study-in-turkey-finds-high-levels-of-misdiagnosis-in-juvenile-myoclonic-epilepsy-15-02-2016#.wadfhnkufp0 study finds high levels of misdiagnosis in juvenile myoclonic epilepsy

 

Related videos:

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=kdmw2y_ncpa myoclonus

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=cmx8guonzxq myoclonus

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=bhg3gdvzops myoclonic jerking

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ndaieiv29og myoclonic epilepsy - sleep myoclonus

 

Presentations/quiz/newspaper articles:

http://www.slideshare.net/drpsdeb/myoclonus myoclonus dr ps deb md, dm director neurology gnrc hospitals , guwahati, assam, india

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