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Muscular Dystrophy(MD)

Muscular Dystrophy(MD)

Last Reviewed : 12/24/2020
Muscular Dystrophy(MD)

Muscular dystrophy (MD) is a group of muscle diseases that weaken the musculoskeletal system and hamper locomotion (walking or moving ). Muscular dystrophies are characterized by progressive skeletal muscle weakness, defects in muscle proteins, and the death of muscle cells and tissue.

As of 2016, no specific treatment or cure for muscular dystrophy is known. However, physiotherapy, aerobic exercise, low-intensity catabolic steroids such as prednisone, and deflazacort (for which the U.S. FDA has designated fast-track status in January 2016 to conduct clinical trials) can help to maintain muscle tone.

Apart from the nine major types of muscular dystrophy, several MD-like conditions, also known as "outliers", exist. Normal intellectual, behavioral, bowel, and sexual functions are noticed among these "outliers".MD-affected individuals with susceptible intellectual impairment are diagnosed through molecular characteristics, but not through problems associated with disability. However, a third of patients who are severely affected with DMD may have cognitive impairment or behavioral, vision, and speech problems.

We researched this topic for you and found the following best online resources. They are categorized into basic, advanced, and research level based on the extent of information you need. You will be taken to the respective websites by pressing on the links below.

 

basic information:

http://www.mayoclinic.org/diseases-conditions/muscular-dystrophy/basics/definition/con-20021240 mayo clinic definition

http://www.ninds.nih.gov/disorders/md/md.htm national institute of neurological disorders and stroke muscular dystrophy

http://www.webmd.com/children/understanding-muscular-dystrophy-basics web md understanding muscular dystrophy -- the basics

http://www.nhs.uk/conditions/muscular-dystrophy/pages/introduction.aspx nhs uk muscular dystrophy

http://kidshealth.org/en/teens/muscular-dystrophy.html kids health.org what is muscular dystrophy?

http://www.healthline.com/health/muscular-dystrophy health line muscular dystrophies

http://orthoinfo.aaos.org/topic.cfm?topic=a00384 ortho info muscular dystrophy

http://my.clevelandclinic.org/health/diseases_conditions/hic_muscular_dystrophy cleveland clinic muscular dystrophy

https://www.betterhealth.vic.gov.au/health/conditionsandtreatments/muscular-dystrophy better health muscular dystrophy

http://www.medicinenet.com/script/main/art.asp?articlekey=11682 medicine net.com definition of muscular dystrophy

http://www.nytimes.com/health/guides/disease/muscular-dystrophy/overview.html newyork times muscular dystrophy

http://umm.edu/health/medical/altmed/condition/muscular-dystrophy university of maryland medical center muscular dystrophy

http://chealth.canoe.com/condition/getcondition/facioscapulohumeral-muscular-dystrophy canoe muscular dystrophy

http://www.encyclopedia.com/topic/muscular_dystrophy.aspx encyclopedia muscular dystrophy

http://www.healthcentral.com/encyclopedia/adam/muscular-dystrophy-4011763/ health central muscular dystrophy

 

Advanced information:

http://www.medicalnewstoday.com/articles/187618.php medical news today muscular dystrophy: causes, symptoms and treatments

http://emedicine.medscape.com/article/1259041-overview medscape muscular dystrophy

http://patient.info/health/muscular-dystrophies-an-overview patient muscular dystrophies - an overview

http://www.dovemed.com/current-medical-news/new-insights-muscular-dystrophy-point-potential-treatment-avenues/ dove med new insights into muscular dystrophy point to potential treatment avenues last updated june 20, 2016

 

Research:

http://www.mdpi.com/1422-0067/14/10/19681/htm non-coding rnas in muscle dystrophies by daniela erriquez et al., int. j. mol. sci. 2013, 14(10), 19681-19704; doi:10.3390/ijms141019681

http://journal.frontiersin.org/article/10.3389/fnagi.2014.00317/full mini review article front. aging neurosci., 10 november 2014 | http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fnagi.2014.00317 oculopharyngeal muscular dystrophy as a paradigm for muscle aging by yotam raz and vered raz

http://europepmc.org/backend/ptpmcrender.fcgi?accid=pmc3680476&blobtype=pdf : gianola s, pecoraro v, lambiase s, gatti r, banfi g, et al. (2013) efficacy of muscle exercise in patients with muscular dystrophy: a systematic review showing a missed opportunity to improve outcomes. plos one 8(6): e65414. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0065414

http://skeletalmusclejournal.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/2044-5040-1-8 challenges to oligonucleotides-based therapeutics for duchenne muscular dystrophy by aurélie goyenvalle and kay e davies skeletal muscle20111:8 doi: 10.1186/2044-5040-1-8

http://dmm.biologists.org/content/7/7/739 zebrafish models in translational research: tipping the scales toward advancements in human health by jennifer b. phillips, monte westerfield disease models and mechanisms 2014 7: 739-743; doi: 10.1242/dmm.015545

http://journal.frontiersin.org/article/10.3389/fnagi.2015.00125/full review article front. aging neurosci., 09 july 2015 | http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fnagi.2015.00125 muscle wasting in myotonic dystrophies: a model of premature aging by alba judith mateos-aierdi et al.,

http://journal.frontiersin.org/article/10.3389/fnagi.2014.00099/full review article front. aging neurosci., 22 may 2014 | http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fnagi.2014.00099 degeneration of neuromuscular junction in age and dystrophy by rüdiger rudolf et al.,

http://www.mdpi.com/2079-7737/3/4/752/htm biology 2014, 3(4), 752-780; doi:10.3390/biology3040752 review:high throughput screening in duchenne muscular dystrophy: from drug discovery to functional genomics by thomas j.j. gintjee, alvin s.h. magh and carmen bertoni

http://www.mdpi.com/2073-4409/1/3/325/htm cells 2012, 1(3), 325-345; doi:10.3390/cells1030325 review:autophagy in skeletal muscle homeostasis and in muscular dystrophies by paolo grumati and paolo bonaldo

http://www.hindawi.com/journals/omcl/2016/6842568/ oxidative medicine and cellular longevity
volume 2016 (2016), article id 6842568, 13 pages http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2016/6842568 review article:oxidative stress-mediated skeletal muscle degeneration: molecules, mechanisms, and therapies by min hee choi et al.,

http://journal.frontiersin.org/article/10.3389/fphys.2013.00363/full review article front. physiol., 12 december 2013 | http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fphys.2013.00363 nuclear positioning in muscle development and disease by eric s. folker and mary k. baylies

http://journal.frontiersin.org/article/10.3389/fnagi.2014.00188/full review article front. aging neurosci., 24 july 2014 | http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fnagi.2014.00188 skeletal muscle homeostasis in duchenne muscular dystrophy: modulating autophagy as a promising therapeutic strategy by clara de palma et al.,

http://www.mdpi.com/1420-3049/20/5/8823/htm molecules 2015, 20(5), 8823-8855; doi:10.3390/molecules20058823 review:current understanding of molecular pathology and treatment of cardiomyopathy in duchenne muscular dystrophy by tirsa l. e. van westering, corinne a. betts and matthew j. a. wood

 

Other helpful resources(support groups):

https://www.mda.org/ muscular dystrophy association

http://www.mdas.org.sg/ muscular dystrophy association singapore

http://www.mda.org.nz/ muscular dystrophy association of new zealand

http://mdasa.org.au/ muscular dystrophy south australia

http://www.iamd.in/ indian association of muscular dystrophy

 

Related videos:

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=o1uhhpjmzkw muscular dystrophy - duchenne, becker and mytonic

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=af4d4tye9nm the duchenne timeline

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=zrpnmgs4rhm living with muscular dystrophy" by bryan arnold

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=dv3pj9mknky duchenne muscular dystrophy treatment in india

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=en7osscf1vk the cure for muscle dystrophy (mainly children)!!!

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=igx12wm_ies muscular dystrophy: the mysterious disease

 

Presentations/quiz/newspaper articles:

http://www.bbc.com/news/health-36056759 bbc news green light for duchenne muscular dystrophy drug

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