Muscular Dystrophy(MD)

Muscular Dystrophy(MD)

Last Reviewed : 12/24/2020
Muscular Dystrophy(MD)

Muscular dystrophy (MD) is a group of muscle diseases that weaken the musculoskeletal system and hamper locomotion (walking or moving ). Muscular dystrophies are characterized by progressive skeletal muscle weakness, defects in muscle proteins, and the death of muscle cells and tissue.

As of 2016, no specific treatment or cure for muscular dystrophy is known. However, physiotherapy, aerobic exercise, low-intensity catabolic steroids such as prednisone, and deflazacort (for which the U.S. FDA has designated fast-track status in January 2016 to conduct clinical trials) can help to maintain muscle tone.

Apart from the nine major types of muscular dystrophy, several MD-like conditions, also known as "outliers", exist. Normal intellectual, behavioral, bowel, and sexual functions are noticed among these "outliers".MD-affected individuals with susceptible intellectual impairment are diagnosed through molecular characteristics, but not through problems associated with disability. However, a third of patients who are severely affected with DMD may have cognitive impairment or behavioral, vision, and speech problems.

We researched this topic for you and found the following best online resources. They are categorized into basic, advanced, and research level based on the extent of information you need. You will be taken to the respective websites by pressing on the links below.


basic information: mayo clinic definition national institute of neurological disorders and stroke muscular dystrophy web md understanding muscular dystrophy -- the basics nhs uk muscular dystrophy kids what is muscular dystrophy? health line muscular dystrophies ortho info muscular dystrophy cleveland clinic muscular dystrophy better health muscular dystrophy medicine definition of muscular dystrophy newyork times muscular dystrophy university of maryland medical center muscular dystrophy canoe muscular dystrophy encyclopedia muscular dystrophy health central muscular dystrophy


Advanced information: medical news today muscular dystrophy: causes, symptoms and treatments medscape muscular dystrophy patient muscular dystrophies - an overview dove med new insights into muscular dystrophy point to potential treatment avenues last updated june 20, 2016


Research: non-coding rnas in muscle dystrophies by daniela erriquez et al., int. j. mol. sci. 2013, 14(10), 19681-19704; doi:10.3390/ijms141019681 mini review article front. aging neurosci., 10 november 2014 | oculopharyngeal muscular dystrophy as a paradigm for muscle aging by yotam raz and vered raz : gianola s, pecoraro v, lambiase s, gatti r, banfi g, et al. (2013) efficacy of muscle exercise in patients with muscular dystrophy: a systematic review showing a missed opportunity to improve outcomes. plos one 8(6): e65414. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0065414 challenges to oligonucleotides-based therapeutics for duchenne muscular dystrophy by aurélie goyenvalle and kay e davies skeletal muscle20111:8 doi: 10.1186/2044-5040-1-8 zebrafish models in translational research: tipping the scales toward advancements in human health by jennifer b. phillips, monte westerfield disease models and mechanisms 2014 7: 739-743; doi: 10.1242/dmm.015545 review article front. aging neurosci., 09 july 2015 | muscle wasting in myotonic dystrophies: a model of premature aging by alba judith mateos-aierdi et al., review article front. aging neurosci., 22 may 2014 | degeneration of neuromuscular junction in age and dystrophy by rüdiger rudolf et al., biology 2014, 3(4), 752-780; doi:10.3390/biology3040752 review:high throughput screening in duchenne muscular dystrophy: from drug discovery to functional genomics by thomas j.j. gintjee, alvin s.h. magh and carmen bertoni cells 2012, 1(3), 325-345; doi:10.3390/cells1030325 review:autophagy in skeletal muscle homeostasis and in muscular dystrophies by paolo grumati and paolo bonaldo oxidative medicine and cellular longevity
volume 2016 (2016), article id 6842568, 13 pages review article:oxidative stress-mediated skeletal muscle degeneration: molecules, mechanisms, and therapies by min hee choi et al., review article front. physiol., 12 december 2013 | nuclear positioning in muscle development and disease by eric s. folker and mary k. baylies review article front. aging neurosci., 24 july 2014 | skeletal muscle homeostasis in duchenne muscular dystrophy: modulating autophagy as a promising therapeutic strategy by clara de palma et al., molecules 2015, 20(5), 8823-8855; doi:10.3390/molecules20058823 review:current understanding of molecular pathology and treatment of cardiomyopathy in duchenne muscular dystrophy by tirsa l. e. van westering, corinne a. betts and matthew j. a. wood


Other helpful resources(support groups): muscular dystrophy association muscular dystrophy association singapore muscular dystrophy association of new zealand muscular dystrophy south australia indian association of muscular dystrophy


Related videos: muscular dystrophy - duchenne, becker and mytonic the duchenne timeline living with muscular dystrophy" by bryan arnold duchenne muscular dystrophy treatment in india the cure for muscle dystrophy (mainly children)!!! muscular dystrophy: the mysterious disease


Presentations/quiz/newspaper articles: bbc news green light for duchenne muscular dystrophy drug

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