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Mumps/Epidemic Parotitis

Mumps/Epidemic Parotitis

Last Reviewed : 12/24/2020
Mumps/Epidemic Parotitis

Mumps, also known as epidemic parotitis, is a viral disease caused by the mumps virus. Initial signs and symptoms often include fever, muscle pain, headache, and feeling tired. This is then usually followed by painful swelling of one or both parotid glands. Symptoms typically occur 16 to 18 days after exposure and resolve after seven to ten days. Symptoms in adults are often more severe than in children. About a third of people have mild or no symptoms. Complications may include infections of the covering of the brain (15 percent), pancreatitis (four percent), permanent deafness, and painful testicular swelling which uncommonly results in infertility. Women may developovarian swelling but this does not increase the risk of infertility.

Mumps is highly contagious and spreads rapidly among people living in close quarters. The virus is transmitted by respiratory droplets or direct contact with an infected person. Only humans get and spread the disease. People are infectious to each other from about seven days before the start of symptoms to about eight days after. After an infection a person is typically immune for life. Reinfection is possible but tends to be mild. Diagnosis is usually suspected due to parotid swelling and can be confirmed by isolating the virus on a swab of the parotid duct. Testing for IgM antibodies in the blood is simple and may be useful; however, can be falsely negative in those who have been immunized.

Mumps is preventable by two doses of the mumps vaccine. Most of the developed world includes it in their immunization programs, often in combination with measles and rubella vaccine. Countries that have low immunization rates may see an increase in cases among older age groups and thus worse outcomes. There is no specific treatment. Efforts involve controlling symptoms with pain medication such as acetaminophen. Intravenous immunoglobulin may be useful in certain complications. Hospitalization may be required if meningitis or pancreatitis develops. About one per ten thousand people who are infected die.

Without immunization about 0.1 percent to one percent of the population are affected per year. Widespread vaccination has resulted in a more than 90 percent decline in rates of disease. Mumps is more common in the developing world where vaccination is less common. Outbreaks, however, may still occur in a vaccinated population. Before the introduction of a vaccine, mumps was a common childhood disease worldwide. Larger outbreaks of disease would typically occur every two to five years. Children between the ages of five and nine were most commonly affected. Among immunized population often those in their early 20s are affected. Around the equator it often occurs all year round while in the more northerly and southerly regions of the world it is more common in the winter and spring. Painful swelling of the parotid glands and testicles were described byHippocrates in the 5th century BCE.

We researched this topic for you and found the following best online resources. They are categorized into basic, advanced, and research level based on the extent of information you need. You will be taken to the respective websites by pressing on the links below.

 

Basic information:

http://www.healthline.com/health/mumps health line mumps

http://www.mayoclinic.org/diseases-conditions/mumps/basics/definition/con-20019914 mayoclinic definition

http://www.nhs.uk/conditions/mumps/pages/introduction.aspx nhs uk mumps

http://kidshealth.org/en/parents/mumps.html kids health mumps

http://www.health.ny.gov/publications/2440/ new york state department of health mumps

https://www.betterhealth.vic.gov.au/health/conditionsandtreatments/mumps better health mumps

https://www.hse.ie/eng/health/az/m/mumps/ health service executive mumps

http://www.webmd.com/children/tc/mumps-topic-overview web md mumps

http://www.sahealth.sa.gov.au/wps/wcm/connect/public+content/sa+health+internet/health+topics/health+conditions+prevention+and+treatment/infectious+diseases/mumps/mumps+-+including+symptoms+treatment+and+prevention sa health mumps - including symptoms, treatment and prevention

http://www.netdoctor.co.uk/conditions/pregnancy-and-family/a9086/mumps/ net doctor mumps

http://umm.edu/health/medical/altmed/condition/mumps university of maryland mumps

http://www.nytimes.com/health/guides/disease/mumps/overview.html newyork times mumps

http://www.aboutkidshealth.ca/en/healthaz/conditionsanddiseases/infectiousdiseases/pages/mumps.aspx about kids health mumps

https://www.healthychildren.org/english/health-issues/vaccine-preventable-diseases/pages/mumps.aspx healthy children mumps

http://familydoctor.org/familydoctor/en/diseases-conditions/mumps.html family doctor,org mumps

http://www.healthnavigator.org.nz/health-a-z/m/mumps/ health navigator mumps

http://www.healthdirect.gov.au/mumps health direct mumps

http://chealth.canoe.com/condition/getcondition/mumps canoe mumps

http://www.healthcentral.com/encyclopedia/408/432.html28 health central mumps

 

Advanced information:

http://www.medicinenet.com/mumps/page2.htm medicine net.com mumps

http://www.medicalnewstoday.com/articles/224382.php medical news today mumps: causes, diagnosis, and treatment

http://patient.info/health/mumps-leaflet patient mumps

https://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/mumps.html medline plus mumps

http://www.vaccines.gov/diseases/mumps/ vaccines.gov mumps

http://reference.medscape.com/article/966678-overview medscape mumps

https://www.merckmanuals.com/professional/pediatrics/miscellaneous-viral-infections-in-infants-and-children/mumps merck manuals(professional version) mumps

 

Research:

http://www.kjp.or.kr/upload/2010530503-20100658180958.pdf reemergence of mumps by kyong min choi, m.d doi: 10.3345/kjp.2010.53.5.623 korean j pediatr 2010;54(5):623-628

http://www.mdpi.com/1999-4915/6/8/3019/htm viruses 2014, 6(8), 3019-3054; doi:10.3390/v6083019paramyxovirus glycoprotein incorporation, assembly and budding: a three way dance for infectious particle production by farah el najjar et al.,

http://www.mdpi.com/2076-393x/3/4/988/htm vaccines 2015, 3(4), 988-1003; doi:10.3390/vaccines3040988 review:application of oral fluid assays in support of mumps, rubella and varicella control programs by peter a. c. maple.

 

Other articles:

http://www.petmd.com/dog/conditions/infectious-parasitic/c_dg_mumps pet md mumps in dogs

 

Related videos:

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ioui727k9jm mumps - what is mumps - what is the mmr vaccine video.mp4

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=rpaywlxgir8 what are the symptoms of mumps? - how long does mumps last?

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=aq9t_e0xocg home remedies to treat mumps in children & adults - causes and cure

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ileowtwdqsi

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=iprotg0whs4 all you ever need know about mumps causes symptoms

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=pksg0wvd8ea mumps ¦ treatment and symptoms

 

Presentations/quiz/newspaper articles:

http://www.cbc.ca/news/canada/british-columbia/mumps-outbreak-worsens-1.3615818 cbc.ca mumps outbreak worsens in metro vancouver there are now 41 cases in the region, up from 11

http://www.denverpost.com/2016/02/24/mumps-outbreak-reported-by-denver-state-health-officials-6-cases-idd/ denverpost mumps outbreak reported by denver, state health officials; 6 cases id’d

http://www.nbcnews.com/feature/college-game-plan/mumps-outbreak-harvard-threatens-graduation-n564406 nbc news mumps outbreak at harvard threatnes graduation

http://edition.cnn.com/2016/04/27/health/harvard-university-mumps-outbreak/ cnn harvard mumps out break grows.,dozens infected
http://www.thecrimson.com/article/2016/4/26/mumps-concerns-huhs-director/ the harvard crimpson mumps count rises to 40, concerning huhs director

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