Last Reviewed : 12/28/2020

Menopause, also known as the climacteric, is the time in most women's lives when menstrual periods stop permanently, and they are no longer able to bear children. Menopause typically occurs between 49 and 52 years of age. Medical professionals often define menopause as having occurred when a woman has not had any vaginal bleeding for a year. It may also be defined by a decrease in hormone production by the ovaries. In those who have had surgery to remove their uterus but they still have ovaries, menopause may be viewed to have occurred at the time of the surgery or when their hormone levels fell. Following the removal of the uterus, symptoms typically occur earlier, at an average of 45 years of age.

Before menopause, a woman's periods typically become irregular, which means that periods may be longer or shorter in duration or be lighter or heavier in the amount of flow. During this time, women often experience hot flashes; these typically last from 30 seconds to ten minutes and may be associated with shivering, sweating, and reddening of the skin. Hot flashes often stop occurring after a year or two. Other symptoms may include vaginal dryness, trouble sleeping, and mood changes. The severity of symptoms varies between women. While menopause is often thought to be linked to an increase in heart disease, this primarily occurs due to increasing age and does not have a direct relationship with menopause. In some women, problems that were present like endometriosis or painful periods will improve after menopause.

Menopause is usually a natural change. It can occur earlier in those who smoke tobacco. Other causes include surgery that removes both ovaries or some types of chemotherapy. At the physiological level, menopause happens because of a decrease in the ovaries' production of the hormones estrogen and progesterone. While typically not needed, a diagnosis of menopause can be confirmed by measuring hormone levels in the blood or urine. Menopause is the opposite of menarche, the time when a girl's periods start.

Specific treatment is not usually needed.

We researched this topic for you and found the following best online resources. They are categorized into basic, advanced, and research level based on the extent of information you need. You will be taken to the respective websites by pressing on the links below.




Basic information: web md menopause mayo clinic menopause nhs uk menopause national institute on aging menopause better health menopause 34 menopause symptoms menopause cleveland clinic menopause bupa menopause health direct menopause family dctor menopause prevention 10 things no one ever tells you about menopause university of maryland medical center menopause health service executive menopause new york times menopause southern cross medical library menopause - signs, symptoms, diagnosis, treatment psych guides menopause


Advanced information: medicine net menopause emedicine health menopause medical news today menopause: symptoms, causes and treatments medline plus menopause medscape menopause patient menopause live science these plant compounds may reduce menopause symptoms menopause dermnet nz menopause and the skin upto date treatment of menopausal symptoms with hormone therapy britannica menopause british accupuncture council menopause


Research: review article front. neurosci., 08 december 2014 | functional and molecular neuroimaging of menopause and hormone replacement therapy by erika comascoet al., cristiana caliceti, paola rizzo, and arrigo francesco giuseppe cicero, “potential benefits of berberine in the management of perimenopausal syndrome,” oxidative medicine and cellular longevity, vol. 2015, article id 723093, 9 pages, 2015. doi:10.1155/2015/723093 review article front. endocrinol., 08 february 2012 | tissue-specific effects of loss of estrogen during menopause and aging by korinna wend et al., viroj boonyaratanakornkit and prangwan pateetin, “the role of ovarian sex steroids in metabolic homeostasis, obesity, and postmenopausal breast cancer: molecular mechanisms and therapeutic implications,” biomed research international, vol. 2015, article id 140196, 13 pages, 2015. doi:10.1155/2015/140196

thulkar j, singh s. overview of research studies on osteoporosis in menopausal women since the last decade. j mid-life health [serial online] 2015 [cited 2016 aug 12];6:104-7. available from: advances in hormone replacement therapy: making the menopause manageable by santiago palacios bmc women's health20088:22 doi: 10.1186/1472-6874-8-22 kentaro imai, madeline y. sutton, rennatus mdodo, and carlos del rio, “hiv and menopause: a systematic review of the effects of hiv infection on age at menopause and the effects of menopause on response to antiretroviral therapy,” obstetrics and gynecology international, vol. 2013, article id 340309, 11 pages, 2013. doi:10.1155/2013/340309 holger cramer, romy lauche, jost langhorst, and gustav dobos, “effectiveness of yoga for menopausal symptoms: a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials,” evidence-based complementary and alternative medicine, vol. 2012, article id 863905, 11 pages, 2012. doi:10.1155/2012/863905 international versions of the menopause rating scale (mrs) by lothar aj heinemann et al., health and quality of life outcomes20031:28 doi: 10.1186/1477-7525-1-28 fernando lizcano and guillermo guzmán, “estrogen deficiency and the origin of obesity during menopause,” biomed research international, vol. 2014, article id 757461, 11 pages, 2014. doi:10.1155/2014/757461

murkey b, nadkarni t, bhalerao s, jassawalla m j. delayed menopause due to granulosa cell tumor of the ovary. j mid-life health [serial online] 2011 [cited 2016 aug 12];2:86-8. available from: janet jull, dawn stacey, sarah beach, et al., “lifestyle interventions targeting body weight changes during the menopause transition: a systematic review,” journal of obesity, vol. 2014, article id 824310, 16 pages, 2014. doi:10.1155/2014/824310


Other helpful resources(support groups): the north american menopause society australian menopause society indian menopause society


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Presentations/quiz/newspaper articles: the atlantic the bitch is back health menopause the guardian what women should know about menopause time natural remedies for menopause actually work: study news scientist menopause reversal restores periods and produces fertile eggs daily mail scientists 'reverse' menopause: women who'd not had a period in five years are now menstruating again after their ovaries were rejuvenated

read more: independant 15 tips to manage menopause the scientific american the origin of menopause: why do women outlive fertility? cnn herbal remedies improve early menopause symptoms cbs news menopause study finds four different patterns of hot flashes independant menopause makes women age faster, claim scientists the conversation chemical messengers: how hormones change through menopause

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