Last Reviewed : 12/28/2020

Malaria is a mosquito-borne infectious disease affecting humans and other animals caused by parasitic protozoans (a group of single-celled microorganisms) belonging to the Plasmodium type. Malaria causes symptoms that typically include fever, fatigue,vomiting, and headaches. In severe cases it can cause yellow skin, seizures, coma, or death. Symptoms usually begin ten to fifteen days after being bitten. If not properly treated, people may have recurrences of the disease months later. In those who have recently survived an infection, reinfection usually causes milder symptoms. This partial resistance disappears over months to years if the person has no continuing exposure to malaria.

The disease is most commonly transmitted by an infected female Anopheles mosquito. The mosquito bite introduces theparasites from the mosquito's saliva into a person's blood. The parasites travel to the liver where they mature and reproduce. Five species of Plasmodium can infect and be spread by humans. Most deaths are caused by P. falciparum because P. vivax,P. ovale, and P. malariae generally cause a milder form of malaria. The species P. knowlesi rarely causes disease in humans.[1] Malaria is typically diagnosed by the microscopic examination of blood using blood films, or with antigen-based rapid diagnostic tests. Methods that use the polymerase chain reaction to detect the parasite's DNA have been developed, but are not widely used in areas where malaria is common due to their cost and complexity.

The disease is widespread in the tropical and subtropical regions that exist in a broad band around the equator. This includes much of Sub-Saharan Africa, Asia, and Latin America. In 2015, there were 214 million cases of malaria worldwide resulting in an estimated 438,000 deaths, 90% of which occurred in Africa. Rates of disease have decreased from 2000 to 2015 by 37%, but increased from 2014 during which there were 198 million cases. Malaria is commonly associated with poverty and has a major negative effect on economic development. In Africa, it is estimated to result in losses of US$12 billion a year due to increased healthcare costs, lost ability to work, and negative effects on tourism

We researched this topic for you and found the following best online resources. They are categorized into basic, advanced, and research level based on the extent of information you need. You will be taken to the respective websites by pressing on the links below.




Basic information: medline plus malaria kids health malaria healthline malaria nhs uk malaria better health malaria malaria health central malaria mayo clinic malaria


Advanced information: who malaria fact sheet updated april 2016 medical news today malaria: causes, symptoms and treatments malaria site: all about malaria patient malaria national vector borne disease control programme malaria emedicine health malaria lab tests online malaria genome kegg pathway malaria britannica malaria



bodi jm, nsibu cn, aloni mn, lukute gn, kunuanuna ts, tshibassu pm, pakasa n. black water fever associated with acute renal failure among congolese children in kinshasa. saudi j kidney dis transpl [serial online] 2014 [cited 2016 aug 20];25:1352-8. available from: investigating the evolution of apoptosis in malaria parasites: the importance of ecology by laura c pollitt et al., parasites & vectors20103:105 doi: 10.1186/1756-3305-3-105

olliaro p l, taylor w r. developing artemisinin based drug combinations for the treatment of drug resistant falciparum malaria: a review. j postgrad med [serial online] 2004 [cited 2016 aug 20];50:40-4. available from:

jadhav p, shah r, jadhav m. important advances in malaria vaccine research. chron young sci [serial online] 2012 [cited 2016 aug 20];3:111-20. available from: review article front. pharmacol., 19 december 2014 | antimicrobial peptides: a new class of antimalarial drugs? by nuno vale et al,

tripathy v, reddy b m. present status of understanding on the g6pd deficiency and natural selection. j postgrad med [serial online] 2007 [cited 2016 aug 20];53:193-202. available from: integrated vector management for malaria control by john c beier et al., malaria journal20087(suppl 1):s4 doi: 10.1186/1475-2875-7-s1-s4 momar ndao, “diagnosis of parasitic diseases: old and new approaches,” interdisciplinary perspectives on infectious diseases, vol. 2009, article id 278246, 15 pages, 2009. doi:10.1155/2009/278246 review article front. microbiol., 17 november 2014 | novel approaches to identify protective malaria vaccine candidates by wan ni chia et al., national and subnational hiv/aids coordination: are global health initiatives closing the gap between intent and practice? by neil spicer et al., globalization and health20106:3 doi: 10.1186/1744-8603-6-3

uzochukwu bs, ezeoke op, emma-ukaegbu u, onwujekwe oe, sibeudu ft. malaria treatment services in nigeria: a review. niger med j [serial online] 2010 [cited 2016 aug 20];51:114-9. available from: a systematic review of the safety and efficacy of artemether-lumefantrine against uncomplicated plasmodium falciparummalaria during pregnancy by christine manyando et al., malaria journal201211:141 doi: 10.1186/1475-2875-11-141 maps of the sri lanka malaria situation preceding the tsunami and key aspects to be considered in the emergency phase and beyond by olivier jt briët et al., malaria journal20054:8 doi: 10.1186/1475-2875-4-8 dhimal m, ahrens b, kuch u (2015) climate change and spatiotemporal distributions of vector-borne diseases in nepal – a systematic synthesis of literature. plos one 10(6): e0129869. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0129869 chicken volatiles repel host-seeking malaria mosquitoes by kassahun t. jaleta et al., malaria journal201615:354 doi: 10.1186/s12936-016-1386-3 efficacy of rts,s/as01e vaccine against malaria in children 5 to 17 months of age by philip bejon, ph.d., et al., n engl j med 2008; 359:2521-2532december 11, 2008doi: 10.1056/nejmoa0807381


Other helpful resources(support groups): malaria no more malaria foundation international roll back malaria against malaria foundation presidents malaria initiative malaria zero alliance


Related videos: malaria malaria lifecycle animation malaria - plasmodium hhmi -- life cycle of malaria parasite in human host the malaria life cycle explained. should interest a lot of people. malaria pathophysiology malaria - plasmodium


Presentations/quiz/newspaper articles: bbc news tv presenter charlie webster brought out of rio malaria coma the daily beast malaria almost killed this u.k. anchorwoman in rio mirror how to avoid catching malaria and what to do if you get bitten by a mosquito daily mail 'i regret not taking malaria pills' express where could you catch malaria? world map shows risk of 'highly contagious' disease the hindu bussiness line nppa cuts prices of malaria, hiv, cancer drugs by up to 45% the hindu health officials step up vigil as malaria cases rise the hindustan times mp: dengue, malaria cases sting state on nets campaign scientific american fighting malaria mosquitoes with mosquitoes the atlantic malaria: resurgence of a deadly disease


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