leprosyhansens-disease
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Leprosy/Hansen's disease

Leprosy/Hansen's disease

Last Reviewed : 12/28/2020
Leprosy/Hansen's disease

Leprosy is a long-term infection caused by the bacilli Mycobacterium leprae and Mycobacterium lepromatosis. Initially, infections are without symptoms and typically remain this way for 5 to 20 years. Symptoms that develop include granulomas of the nerves, respiratory tract, skin, and eyes. This may result in a lack of ability to feel pain and thus loss of parts of extremities due to repeated injuries or infection due to unnoticed wounds. Weakness and poor eyesight may also be present. Leprosy is spread between people. This is believed to occur through a cough or contact with fluid from the nose of an infected person. The two main types of disease are based on the number of bacteria present: paucibacillary and multibacillary. The two types are differentiated by the number of poorly pigmented, numb skin patches present, with paucibacillary having five or fewer and multibacillary having more than five. The diagnosis is confirmed by finding acid-fast bacilli in a biopsy of the skin or by detecting the DNA using polymerase chain reaction. Leprosy is curable with a treatment known as multidrug therapy. Treatment for paucibacillary leprosy is with the medications dapsone and rifampicin for six months. Treatment for multibacillary leprosy consists of rifampicin, dapsone, and clofazimine for 12 months. A number of other antibiotics may also be used. These treatments are provided free of charge by the World Health Organization.

We researched this topic for you and found the following best online resources. They are categorized into basic, advanced, and research level based on the extent of information you need. You will be taken to the respective websites by pressing on the links below.

 

Basic information:

http://www.merckmanuals.com/home/infections/tuberculosis-and-leprosy/leprosymerck manuals. leprosy.

https://web.stanford.edu/group/parasites/parasites2005/leprosy/history.htm university of stanford. leprosy.

http://www.physiotherapy-treatment.com/leprosy-disease.htmlphysiotheraoy treatment.com. leprosy.

http://www.nhp.gov.in/disease/skin/leprosy leprosy. national health portal.

http://www.medicalnewstoday.com/articles/308114.php medical news today. leprosy.

https://www.verywell.com/leprosy-hansens-disease-2860363 verywell.com. information about leprosy (hansen's disease)

https://doaj.org/article/fa1144f4d1dd4af980c75dbb973a0b86 directory of open access journals. leprosy: an overview of pathophysiology by ramesh marne bhatetal.interdisciplinary perspectives on infectious diseases. 2012;2012 doi 10.1155/2012/181089

https://doaj.org/article/0554eebd52304455ab4cb35457acb1b3 directory of open access journals. primary neural leprosy: systematic review by jose antonio garbinoetal.arquivos de neuro-psiquiatria. 2013;71(6)397-404 doi 10.1590/0004-282x20130046

 

Advanced information:

http://www.webmd.com/skin-problems-and-treatments/guide/leprosy-symptoms-treatments-historywebmd. leprosy.

https://www.britannica.com/science/leprosy britannica.com. leprosy by june. e. nash et al.

http://www.emedicinehealth.com/leprosy/article_em.htmemedicine health. leprosy by steven doerr

http://www.medicinenet.com/leprosy/article.htmmedicinenet. leprosy. charles patrick davis.

http://emedicine.medscape.com/article/220455-overviewmedscape. leprosy by darvin scott smith.

http://www.icm.tn.gov.in/leprosy7.htm institute of community medicine, madras medical college. tamilnadu. leprosy.

http://www.jpgmonline.com/article.asp?issn=0022-3859;year=2009;volume=55;issue=3;spage=220;epage=224;aulast=gautam journal of post graduate medicine. treatment of leprosy in india by vp gautam. doi: 10.4103/0022-3859.57410

http://www.ijdvl.com/article.asp?issn=0378-6323;year=2009;volume=75;issue=2;spage=126;epage=135;aulast=kaimalindian journal of dermatology venereology and leprosy. relapse in leprosy by sowmyakaimal, devinder mohan thappa. doi: 10.4103/0378-6323.48656

https://doaj.org/article/b4f4a15684cb4bc2808d86e9887a9ace directory of open access journals. leprosy neuropathy: clinical presentations by osvaldo j m nascimento. arquivos de neuro-psiquiatria. 2013;71(9b)661-666 doi 10.1590/0004-282x20130146

https://doaj.org/article/78e0f3f9644649428e59a0b4dfc37e24 directory of open access journlas. leprosy control: perspectives & epidemiological and operational aspects by aguinaldo gonçalvesetal.revista do instituto de medicina tropical de são paulo. 2010;52(6)311-315 doi 10.1590/s0036-46652010000600005

 

Research:

http://www.nature.com/gene/journal/v3/n8/full/6363926a.html nature. genetics of susceptibility to leprosy by j. fitness et al.

https://parasitesandvectors.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/s13071-015-1124-7 bio med central. spatial heterogeneity in projected leprosy trends in india by cara e. brook et al.

http://journals.plos.org/plosntds/article?id=10.1371/journal.pntd.0004592plos. leprosy reactions show increased th17 cell activity and reduced foxp3+ tregs with concomitant decrease in tgf-ß and increase in il-6 by chaman saini et al. http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pntd.0004592

https://doaj.org/article/101f2e6c979248169266e78f0bf6e3ea directory of open access journals. genetics of leprosy reactions: an overview by vinicius fava et al.memórias do instituto oswaldo cruz.. 2012;107(suppl 1)132-142 doi 10.1590/s0074-02762012000900020

https://doaj.org/article/7bfea161b0a14cfe96a9865df2bf4a04 directory of open access journals. role of hla, kir, mica, and cytokines genes in leprosy by luciana ribeiro jarduli et al. biomed research international. 2013;2013 doi 10.1155/2013/989837

https://doaj.org/article/03fda65f7c684a658e8b3c5658b5e8bd directory of open access journals. leprosy nephropathy: a review of clinical and histopathological features by geraldobezerra da silva junior et al. revista do instituto de medicina tropical de são paulo. 2015;57(1)15-20 doi 10.1590/s0036-46652015000100002

https://doaj.org/article/23d12d8cec3d41f1a8f32cda1c34b3bf directory of open access journals. integrative literature review of the reported uses of serological tests in leprosy management by angélica da conceição oliveira coelho fabri et al. revista da sociedadebrasileira de medicina tropical. 2016;49(2)158-164 doi 10.1590/0037-8682-0226-2015

https://doaj.org/article/3dc920fb9d424598b92b46718964b6d5 directory of open access journals. insights from animal models on the immunogenetics of leprosy: a review by linda b adams et al. memórias do instituto oswaldo cruz.. 2012;107(suppl 1)197-208 doi 10.1590/s0074-02762012000900028

https://doaj.org/article/430115fde3c34388b3eb30f6449c0467 directory of open access journals. inflammatory mediators of leprosy reactional episodes and dental infections: a systematic review by d. c. b. cortela et al. mediators of inflammation. 2015;2015 doi 10.1155/2015/548540

https://doaj.org/article/5153b31818ee4c68bf5699d638543379 directory of open access journals. de novo histoid leprosy in an elderly: a case report and review of the literature by deepak dimri et al. case reports in pathology. 2012;2012 doi 10.1155/2012/219421

 

Related topics:

https://springerplus.springeropen.com/articles/10.1186/2193-1801-3-734 springer. case of arthritis secondary to leprosy by fiazalam et al. springerplus20143:734 doi: 10.1186/2193-1801-3-734

https://doaj.org/article/1629052beb8842fa84e463bfeed8b6b0 directory of open access journals. leprosy serology using pgl-i: a systematic review leprosy serology using pgl-i: a systematic review by rodrigo de mourascaliante etal.journal of the brazilian society of tropical medicine . 2008; 4111-18 doi 10.1590 / s0037-86822008000700004

https://doaj.org/article/551bf576db8c48538f5887af023cf7d2 directory of open access journals. leprosy control strategies and the integration of health services: an international perspective by jan visschedijk et al. cadernos de saúdepública. 2003;19(6)1567-1581

https://doaj.org/article/56630e47264a45ffb83fcb647ba36251 directory of open access journals. diffusion tensor imaging tractography in pure neuritic leprosy: first experience report and review of the literature by michele r. colonna et al. case reports in neurological medicine. 2016;2016 doi 10.1155/2016/2767856

https://doaj.org/article/5d2ddbadb3ae42429b4949b0bd7522ee directory of open access journlas. leprous neuromyositis: a rare clinical entity and review of the literature by shubhankermitra et al. indian journal of medical microbiology. 2016;34(1)95-97 doi 10.4103/0255-0857.174120

https://doaj.org/article/6582361eeaf144ed828d37ea24f79982 directory of open access journlas. cytological diagnosis of lepromatous leprosy: a report of two cases with review of literature by anchana gulati et al. journal of cytology. 2012;29(3)203-204 doi 10.4103/0970-9371.101178

https://doaj.org/article/780c84b0367047cc9ab2558771985c90 directory of open journals. oral cavity and leprosy by shambulingappapallagatti et al. indian dermatology online journal. 2012;3(2)101-104 doi 10.4103/2229-5178.96700

https://doaj.org/article/826cf0eb0ec041c293541e00afd2c015 directory of open access journals. leprosy and psoriasis co-existence by rajatthawani et al. indian journal of medical sciences. 2012;66(9)241-244 doi 10.4103/0019-5359.115220

https://doaj.org/article/a8af2d208c144bd8836c893957ae1caf directory of open access journals. micronutrients influencing the immune response in leprosy by cecília maria passosvázquez et al. nutriciónhospitalaria. 2014;29(1)26-36 doi 10.3305/nh.2014.29.1.6988

https://doaj.org/article/92455595e1ef459b8434f4bcb5ca7207 directory of open access journals. drug usage evaluation of dapsone by kannan g et al. indian journal of pharmaceutical sciences. 2009;71(4)456-460

 

Other articles:

http://www.who.int/mediacentre/factsheets/fs101/en/ world health organization. leprosy

https://www.cdc.gov/leprosy/ centre for disease control and prevention. leprosy.

http://www.southsudanmedicaljournal.com/archive/august-2010/understanding-the-stigma-of-leprosy.html south sudan medical journal. understanding the stigma of leprosy by dr edward eremugo luka.

http://www.idoj.in/article.asp?issn=2229-5178;year=2015;volume=6;issue=6;spage=425;epage=427;aulast=raoindiandermatologyonlline journal. global leprosy program: does it need uniform-multi-drug therapy now? by p narasimha rao et al.doi: 10.4103/2229-5178.169735

https://doaj.org/article/826db9ee18f84a83bfd6cfaa80c98a34 directory of open access journals. analysis of antigens of mycobacterium leprae by interaction to sera igg, igm, and iga response to improve diagnosis of leprosy by avnish kumar et al. biomed research international. 2014;2014 doi 10.1155/2014/283278

https://doaj.org/article/85d851d0fd19498fa2037bcc0cb727bb realities of leprosy control: updating scenarios by aguinaldo gonçalvesrevistabrasileira de epidemiologia. 2013;16(3)611-621 doi 10.1590/s1415-790x2013000300006

https://doaj.org/article/e86571eaf1944e718b4d77e5ae45cb84 directory of open access journals. leprosy therapy, past and present: can we hope to eliminate it? by prasad pvs et al. indian journal of dermatology. 2010;55(4)316-324

https://doaj.org/article/e9429ae7ddb84100978d5b2ed99cfea0 directory of open access journals. leprosy control strategies and the integration of health services: an international perspective by visschedijk jan et al. cadernos de saúdepública. 2003;19(6)1567-1581

https://doaj.org/article/e998e63ce2b840b2892bcf70f13361d0 directory of open access journals. leprosy exposure, infection and disease: a 25-year surveillance study of leprosy patient contacts by euzenirnunessarno et al. memórias do instituto oswaldo cruz.. 2012;107(8)1054-1059 doi 10.1590/s0074-02762012000800015

https://doaj.org/article/fcb5dd3d0b8242ac9a6292f9fe410b1d directory of open access journals. current perspectives on leprosy as a public health challenge in india by pandey a. research and reports in tropical medicine. 2015;2015(default)43-48

 

Other useful information:

http://tlmindia.org/ the leprosy mission trust india.

http://www.bombayleprosy.org/ bombay leprosy.org.

http://nlep.nic.in/about.html national leprosy elimination programme. india

https://www.leprosy-information.org/infolep.

https://www.niaid.nih.gov/diseases-conditions/leprosy-hansens-disease national institute of allergy and infectious diseases. india

http://leprasociety.org/leprosy.htmllepra society.

http://www.damienfoundation.in/success-stories/damien foundation.

http://www.newhopeindia.org/ child sponsorship india.

http://www.ilepfederation.org/about-leprosy/leprosy-review/ilepfederation.

http://www.leprosy.org/leprosy-history/american leprosy missions.

http://www.maitri-bodhgaya.org/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=3&itemid=103&lang=enmaitricharitale trust.

http://www.leprosymission.org.uk/ the leprosy mission. england and whales.

 

Related videos/presentations:

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=bjnfect5bfgyoutube. leprosy.

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=tcyy5ecwwukyoutube. what is leprosy? - http://damientheleper.org

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=bjnfect5bfgyoutube. leprosy

http://www.slideshare.net/keerthisisupalan/leprosy-15968617 slide share. leprosy

http://www.authorstream.com/presentation/jamesjose49-1569852-leprosy/authorstream. Leprosy.

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