Kidney stones/Renal calculus/Nephrolith

Kidney stones/Renal calculus/Nephrolith

Last Reviewed : 12/28/2020
Kidney stones/Renal calculus/Nephrolith

A kidney stone, also known as a renal calculus or nephrolith, is a solid piece of material which is formed in the kidneys fromminerals in urine. Kidney stones typically leave the body in the urine stream, and a small stone may pass without causing symptoms. If stones grow to sufficient size (usually at least 3 millimeters (0.1 in)) they can cause blockage of the ureter. This leads to pain, most commonly beginning in the flank or lower back and often radiating to the groin. This pain is often known as renal colicand typically comes in waves lasting 20 to 60 minutes. Other associated symptoms include: nausea, vomiting, fever, blood in the urine, pus in the urine, and painful urination. Blockage of the ureter can cause decreased kidney function and dilation of the kidney.

Most stones form due to a combination of genetics and environmental factors. Risk factors include being overweight, certain foods, some medications, and not drinking enough fluids. The diagnosis is usually based on symptoms, urine testing, and medical imaging. Blood tests may also be useful. Urinary stones are typically classified by their location in the kidney (nephrolithiasis),ureter (ureterolithiasis), or bladder (cystolithiasis), or by their chemical composition (calcium-containing, struvite, uric acid, or other compounds).

In those who have previously had stones, prevention is recommended by drinking fluids such that more than two liters of urine is produced per day. If this is not effective enough, thiazide diuretic, citrate or allopurinol may be taken. It is recommended that soft drinks containing phosphoric acid (typically colas) be avoided. When a stone causes no symptoms, no treatment is needed. For stones which are causing symptoms, pain control is usually the first measure, using medications such as nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs or opioids. More severe cases may require procedures. For example, some stones can be shattered into smaller fragments using extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy. Others require cystoscopic procedures.

In 2013, 49 million cases of kidney stones occurred, resulting in about 15,000 deaths globally. In the United States, about 9% of the population has had a kidney stone. Generally, slightly more men are affected than women.

We researched this topic for you and found the following best online resources. They are categorized into basic, advanced, and research level based on the extent of information you need. You will be taken to the respective websites by pressing on the links below.


Basic information: medicine kidney stones web md slideshow: a visual guide to kidney stones health line kidney stone mayo clinic kidney stone nhs uk symptoms of kidney stones urology health kidney stone kidney stone net doctor kidney stone new york times kidney stone bupa kidney stone better health kidney stone kids health kidney stone clevland clinic kidney stone british association of urological surgeons kidney stone everyday health kidney stones symptoms and diagnosis health direct kidney stones healthy children kidney stones in children and teens family kidney stones


Advanced information: national institute for digestive and diabetes and kidneys kidney stones in adults emedicine health kidney stone patient kidney stone medical news today kidney stones: causes, symptoms and treatments health service executive kidney stone live science kidney stones: causes, symptoms & treatment kidney stone clinic kidney stone medscape nephrolithiasis merck manuals(professional version) urinary calculi southerncross medical library kidney stone ucla health kidney stones (nephrolithiasis) washington university school of medicine in st.louis surgery for kidney stones upto date patient information: kidney stones in adults (beyond the basics) radiology info kidney and bladder stones britannica kidney stone



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Presentations/quiz/newspaper articles: is sex nature's way of curing kidney stones? intercourse 3-4 times a week 'can help spontaneously clear them from the body' by anna hodgekiss for mailonline number of kidney stone cases increases by 115% in 10 years doctors remove 420 kidney stones 'caused by excessive tofu' from patient in china



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