A kidney stone, also known as a renal calculus or nephrolith, is a solid piece of material which is formed in the kidneys fromminerals in urine. Kidney stones typically leave the body in the urine stream, and a small stone may pass without causing symptoms. If stones grow to sufficient size (usually at least 3 millimeters (0.1 in)) they can cause blockage of the ureter. This leads to pain, most commonly beginning in the flank or lower back and often radiating to the groin. This pain is often known as renal colicand typically comes in waves lasting 20 to 60 minutes. Other associated symptoms include: nausea, vomiting, fever, blood in the urine, pus in the urine, and painful urination. Blockage of the ureter can cause decreased kidney function and dilation of the kidney.
Most stones form due to a combination of genetics and environmental factors. Risk factors include being overweight, certain foods, some medications, and not drinking enough fluids. The diagnosis is usually based on symptoms, urine testing, and medical imaging. Blood tests may also be useful. Urinary stones are typically classified by their location in the kidney (nephrolithiasis),ureter (ureterolithiasis), or bladder (cystolithiasis), or by their chemical composition (calcium-containing, struvite, uric acid, or other compounds).
In those who have previously had stones, prevention is recommended by drinking fluids such that more than two liters of urine is produced per day. If this is not effective enough, thiazide diuretic, citrate or allopurinol may be taken. It is recommended that soft drinks containing phosphoric acid (typically colas) be avoided. When a stone causes no symptoms, no treatment is needed. For stones which are causing symptoms, pain control is usually the first measure, using medications such as nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs or opioids. More severe cases may require procedures. For example, some stones can be shattered into smaller fragments using extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy. Others require cystoscopic procedures.
In 2013, 49 million cases of kidney stones occurred, resulting in about 15,000 deaths globally. In the United States, about 9% of the population has had a kidney stone. Generally, slightly more men are affected than women.
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http://hmongstudies.org/culhaneperamlee.pdf “die another day”: a qualitative analysis of hmong experiences with kidney stones by kathleen a. culhane-pera, md,ma and mayseng lee, md, mph, hmong studies journal, 2006, 7:1-34.
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manny tb, manny js, hemal ak. transmesocolic robotic extended pyelolithotomy of a large gas-containing renal stone: case report and review of the literature. urol ann [serial online] 2013 [cited 2016 jun 14];5:126-8. available from: http://www.urologyannals.com/text.asp?2013/5/2/126/110015
http://bmcurol.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/1471-2490-6-1 laparoscopic nephrectomy for giant staghorn calculus with non-functioning kidneys: is associated unsuspected urothelial carcinoma responsible for conversion? report of 2 cases by hemendra navinchandra shah et al., bmc urologybmc series ¿ open, inclusive and trusted20066:1 doi: 10.1186/1471-2490-6-1
http://www.jebmh.com/data_pdf/27%20-%20h%20l%20gupta.pdf h. l. gupta, manish gupta, shameer deen. “a retrospective study of percutaneous nephrolithotomy performed for the management of renal calculus: five year experience of 1000 cases”. journal of evidence based medicine and healthcare; volume 2, issue 39, september 28, 2015; page: 6406-6411, doi: 10.18410/jebmh/2015/877
http://www.jemds.com/data_pdf/1_manish%20gupta%20,,,,afsa...gu.pdf manish gupta, h. l. gupta, shameer deen, t. c. sadasukhi. “a retrospective study of supracostal puncture in pcnl for the management of renal calculus: five year experience”. journal of evolution of medical and dental sciences 2015; vol. 4, issue 82, october 12; page: 14401-14408, doi: 10.14260/jemds/2015/2048