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Kidney stones/Renal calculus/Nephrolith

Kidney stones/Renal calculus/Nephrolith

Last Reviewed : 12/28/2020
Kidney stones/Renal calculus/Nephrolith

A kidney stone, also known as a renal calculus or nephrolith, is a solid piece of material which is formed in the kidneys fromminerals in urine. Kidney stones typically leave the body in the urine stream, and a small stone may pass without causing symptoms. If stones grow to sufficient size (usually at least 3 millimeters (0.1 in)) they can cause blockage of the ureter. This leads to pain, most commonly beginning in the flank or lower back and often radiating to the groin. This pain is often known as renal colicand typically comes in waves lasting 20 to 60 minutes. Other associated symptoms include: nausea, vomiting, fever, blood in the urine, pus in the urine, and painful urination. Blockage of the ureter can cause decreased kidney function and dilation of the kidney.

Most stones form due to a combination of genetics and environmental factors. Risk factors include being overweight, certain foods, some medications, and not drinking enough fluids. The diagnosis is usually based on symptoms, urine testing, and medical imaging. Blood tests may also be useful. Urinary stones are typically classified by their location in the kidney (nephrolithiasis),ureter (ureterolithiasis), or bladder (cystolithiasis), or by their chemical composition (calcium-containing, struvite, uric acid, or other compounds).

In those who have previously had stones, prevention is recommended by drinking fluids such that more than two liters of urine is produced per day. If this is not effective enough, thiazide diuretic, citrate or allopurinol may be taken. It is recommended that soft drinks containing phosphoric acid (typically colas) be avoided. When a stone causes no symptoms, no treatment is needed. For stones which are causing symptoms, pain control is usually the first measure, using medications such as nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs or opioids. More severe cases may require procedures. For example, some stones can be shattered into smaller fragments using extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy. Others require cystoscopic procedures.

In 2013, 49 million cases of kidney stones occurred, resulting in about 15,000 deaths globally. In the United States, about 9% of the population has had a kidney stone. Generally, slightly more men are affected than women.

We researched this topic for you and found the following best online resources. They are categorized into basic, advanced, and research level based on the extent of information you need. You will be taken to the respective websites by pressing on the links below.

 

Basic information:

http://www.medicinenet.com/kidney_stones/article.htm medicine net.com kidney stones

http://www.webmd.com/kidney-stones/ss/slideshow-kidney-stones-overview web md slideshow: a visual guide to kidney stones

http://www.healthline.com/health/kidney-stones health line kidney stone

http://www.mayoclinic.org/diseases-conditions/kidney-stones/basics/definition/con-20024829 mayo clinic kidney stone

http://www.nhs.uk/conditions/kidney-stones/pages/symptoms.aspx nhs uk symptoms of kidney stones

http://www.urologyhealth.org/urologic-conditions/kidney-stones urology health kidney stone

http://kidney.org.au/your-kidneys/detect/kidney-stones/who-is-at-risk-438 kidney.org kidney stone

http://www.netdoctor.co.uk/conditions/liver-kidney-and-urinary-system/a3026/kidney-stones/ net doctor kidney stone

http://www.nytimes.com/health/guides/disease/kidney-stones/overview.html new york times kidney stone

http://www.bupa.co.uk/health-information/directory/k/kidney-stones bupa kidney stone

https://www.betterhealth.vic.gov.au/health/conditionsandtreatments/kidney-stones better health kidney stone

http://kidshealth.org/en/parents/kidney-stones.html kids health kidney stone

http://my.clevelandclinic.org/services/urology-kidney/diseases-conditions/kidney-stones-overview clevland clinic kidney stone

http://www.baus.org.uk/patients/conditions/6/kidney_stones british association of urological surgeons kidney stone

http://www.everydayhealth.com/kidney-stones/guide/symptoms/ everyday health kidney stones symptoms and diagnosis

http://www.healthdirect.gov.au/kidney-stones health direct kidney stones

https://www.healthychildren.org/english/health-issues/conditions/genitourinary-tract/pages/kidney-stones-in-children-and-teens.aspx healthy children kidney stones in children and teens

http://familydoctor.org/familydoctor/en/diseases-conditions/kidney-stones.html family doctor.org kidney stones

 

Advanced information:

http://www.niddk.nih.gov/health-information/health-topics/urologic-disease/kidney-stones-in-adults/pages/facts.aspx national institute for digestive and diabetes and kidneys kidney stones in adults

http://www.emedicinehealth.com/kidney_stones/article_em.htm emedicine health kidney stone

http://patient.info/health/kidney-stones patient kidney stone

http://www.medicalnewstoday.com/articles/154193.php medical news today kidney stones: causes, symptoms and treatments

https://www.hse.ie/eng/health/az/k/kidney-stones/symptoms-of-kidney-stones.html health service executive kidney stone

http://www.livescience.com/42784-kidney-stones-causes-treatments.html live science kidney stones: causes, symptoms & treatment

http://www.kidneystoneclinic.com.au/kidney-stone-formation.html kidney stone clinic kidney stone

http://emedicine.medscape.com/article/437096-overview medscape nephrolithiasis

http://www.merckmanuals.com/professional/genitourinary-disorders/urinary-calculi/urinary-calculi merck manuals(professional version) urinary calculi

https://www.southerncross.co.nz/group/medical-library/kidney-stones southerncross medical library kidney stone

https://www.uclahealth.org/endocrine-center/pages/kidney-stones.aspx ucla health kidney stones (nephrolithiasis)

http://urology.wustl.edu/en/patient-care/kidney-stones/surgery-for-kidney-stones washington university school of medicine in st.louis surgery for kidney stones

http://www.uptodate.com/contents/kidney-stones-in-adults-beyond-the-basics upto date patient information: kidney stones in adults (beyond the basics)

http://www.radiologyinfo.org/en/info.cfm?pg=stones-renal radiology info kidney and bladder stones

http://www.britannica.com/science/kidney-stone britannica kidney stone

 

Research:

akl k, ghawanmeh r. the clinical spectrum of idiopathic hyperuricosuria in children: isolated and associated with hypercalciuria/hyperoxaluria. saudi j kidney dis transpl [serial online] 2012 [cited 2016 jun 14];23:979-84. available from: http://www.sjkdt.org/text.asp?2012/23/5/979/100879

agrawal s, chipde ss, kalathia j, agrawal r. renal stone in crossed fused renal ectopia and its laparoscopic management: case report and review of literature. urol ann [serial online] 2016 [cited 2016 jun 14];8:236-8. available from: http://www.urologyannals.com/text.asp?2016/8/2/236/176871

cheungpasitporn w, thongprayoon c, mao ma, o'corragain oa, edmonds pj, erickson sb. the risk of coronary heart disease in patients with kidney stones: a systematic review and meta-analysis. north am j med sci [serial online] 2014 [cited 2016 jun 14];6:580-5. available from: http://www.najms.org/text.asp?2014/6/11/580/145477

http://hmongstudies.org/culhaneperamlee.pdf “die another day”: a qualitative analysis of hmong experiences with kidney stones by kathleen a. culhane-pera, md,ma and mayseng lee, md, mph, hmong studies journal, 2006, 7:1-34.

http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/s2214388215000338 advances in percutaneous stone surgery by christopher hartman et al., asian journal of urology volume 2, issue 1, january 2015, pages 26–32 doi:10.1016/j.ajur.2015.04.010

daradka i. indications for nephrectomy in children: a report on 119 cases. saudi j kidney dis transpl [serial online] 2012 [cited 2016 jun 14];23:1221-6. available from: http://www.sjkdt.org/text.asp?2012/23/6/1221/103563

http://www.ijabpt.org/applied-biology/a-brief-review-on-the-potential-medicinal-plants-and-screening-modelsof-urolithiasis.pdf a brief review on the potential medicinal plants and screening models of urolithiasis by bathini santhoshi et al., ijabfp-usa volume-6, issue-1, jan-mar-2015

http://ajp.mums.ac.ir/pdf_6020_b4fd3efc8a26ec54f5450e2c1fced37b.html renal injury, nephrolithiasis and nigella sativa: a mini review by parichehr hayatdavoudi et al., vol. 6, no. 1, jan-feb 2016,1-8.

raghavendran m, rastogi a, dubey d, chaudhary h, kumar a, srivastava a, mandhani a, krishnani n, kapoor r. stones associated renal pelvic malignancies. indian j cancer [serial online] 2003 [cited 2016 jun 14];40:108-12. available from: http://www.indianjcancer.com/text.asp?2003/40/3/108/13061

manny tb, manny js, hemal ak. transmesocolic robotic extended pyelolithotomy of a large gas-containing renal stone: case report and review of the literature. urol ann [serial online] 2013 [cited 2016 jun 14];5:126-8. available from: http://www.urologyannals.com/text.asp?2013/5/2/126/110015

http://rcm.mums.ac.ir/article_6027_28b4c4f598f42fce86cc73f0dc237a6e.pdf evaluation of the effects of magnesium supplement in primary and secondary preventions of nephrolithiasis:a systematic review by anoush azarfar (md) et al.,

http://bmcurol.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/1471-2490-6-1 laparoscopic nephrectomy for giant staghorn calculus with non-functioning kidneys: is associated unsuspected urothelial carcinoma responsible for conversion? report of 2 cases by hemendra navinchandra shah et al., bmc urologybmc series ¿ open, inclusive and trusted20066:1 doi: 10.1186/1471-2490-6-1

http://www.jebmh.com/data_pdf/27%20-%20h%20l%20gupta.pdf h. l. gupta, manish gupta, shameer deen. “a retrospective study of percutaneous nephrolithotomy performed for the management of renal calculus: five year experience of 1000 cases”. journal of evidence based medicine and healthcare; volume 2, issue 39, september 28, 2015; page: 6406-6411, doi: 10.18410/jebmh/2015/877

http://www.jemds.com/data_pdf/1_manish%20gupta%20,,,,afsa...gu.pdf manish gupta, h. l. gupta, shameer deen, t. c. sadasukhi. “a retrospective study of supracostal puncture in pcnl for the management of renal calculus: five year experience”. journal of evolution of medical and dental sciences 2015; vol. 4, issue 82, october 12; page: 14401-14408, doi: 10.14260/jemds/2015/2048

 

Related topics:

https://draxe.com/5-kidney-stone-natural-remedies-fast-relief/ dr.axe 5 kidney stone natural remedies for fast relief

http://www.kidneyatlas.org/dissolve-kidney-stones/ kidney atlas 4 remedies to dissolve kidney stones… but only one works

http://www.earthclinic.com/cures/kidney_stones.html earth clinic kidney stone remedies from home

https://www.askdrshah.com/kidney-stones.aspx life force homeopathy kidney stone

 

Other articles:

http://www.petmd.com/dog/conditions/urinary/c_dg_nephrolithiasis kidney stones in dogs

http://www.vet.cornell.edu/fhc/health_information/bladderandkidneystones.cfm cornell university college of veterinary medicine feline bladder and kidney stones

 

Other helpful resources(support groups):

https://www.kidney.org/atoz/content/kidneystones national kidney foundation

http://www.kidneyfund.org/kidney-disease/kidney-problems/kidney-stones.html?referrer=https://www.google.co.in/ american kidney fund

http://www.kidney.ca/kidney-stones kidney fundation of canada

 

Related videos:

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=kd1ogaohknk how do kidney stones form? how can we prevent them?

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=0uxzqdgo90s kidney health - know the signs and symptoms of kidney stones

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=lngbrhjkxoe kidney stone

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=nyl8cl3oqq0 upj obstruction and kidney stone removal. all rights reserved by the urology group 2013

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=qfgu_-e_eq0 14 ways to remove kidney stones - do it yourself!

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ndzedxmpysu kidney stone surgery: shock wave lithotripsy

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=yeve6ryv2ma kidney stone

 

Presentations/quiz/newspaper articles:

http://www.dailymail.co.uk/health/article-3272112/is-sex-nature-s-way-curing-kidney-stones-intercourse-3-4-times-week-help-spontaneously-clear-body.html is sex nature's way of curing kidney stones? intercourse 3-4 times a week 'can help spontaneously clear them from the body' by anna hodgekiss for mailonline

https://www.theguardian.com/society/2016/mar/10/number-of-kidney-stone-cases-increases-by-115-in-10-years number of kidney stone cases increases by 115% in 10 years

http://www.telegraph.co.uk/news/worldnews/asia/china/11661711/doctors-remove-420-kidney-stones-caused-by-excessive-tofu-from-patient-in-china.html doctors remove 420 kidney stones 'caused by excessive tofu' from patient in china

 

 

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