Iron-deficiency anemia, also spelled iron deficiency anaemia, is anemia caused by not enough iron. Anemia is defined as a decrease in the amount of red blood cells (RBCs) or hemoglobin in the blood. When anemia comes on slowly, the symptoms are often vague and may include feeling tired, weakness, shortness of breath or poor ability to exercise. Anemia that comes on quickly often has greater symptoms which may include: confusion, feeling like one is going to pass out, and increased thirst. There needs to be significant anemia before a person becomes noticeably pale. There may be additional symptoms depending on the underlying cause.
It is caused by insufficient dietary intake and absorption of iron, or iron loss from bleeding. Bleeding can be from a range of sources such as the intestinal, uterine or urinary tract. The most common cause of iron-deficiency anemia in children in developing countriesis parasitic worms. Worms cause intestinal bleeding, which is not always noticeable in feces, and is especially damaging to children. Malaria, hookworms and vitamin A deficiency contribute to anemia during pregnancy in most underdeveloped countries. In women over 50 years old, the most common cause of iron-deficiency anemia is chronic gastrointestinal bleeding from nonparasitic causes, such as gastric ulcers, duodenal ulcers or gastrointestinal cancer.
Iron deficiency causes approximately half of all anemia cases worldwide, and affects women more often than men. Iron-deficiency anemia affected 1.2 billion people in 2013. In 2013 anemia due to iron deficiency resulted in about 183,000 deaths – down from 213,000 deaths in 1990.
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http://www.aafp.org/afp/2007/0301/p671.html iron deficiency anemia shersten killip, m.d., m.p.h., john m. Bennett, m.d., m.p.h., and mara d. Chambers, m.d., university of kentucky, lexington, kentucky am fam physician. 2007 mar 1;75(5):671-678
Adeyemo ta, adeyemo wl, adediran a, akinbami aa, akanmu as. Orofacial manifestations of hematological disorders: anemia and hemostatic disorders. Indian j dent res [serial online] 2011 [cited 2016 jun 14];22:454-61. Available from: http://www.ijdr.in/text.asp?2011/22/3/454/87070
http://www.mdpi.com/2072-6643/7/5/3847/htm multiple-micronutrient fortified non-dairy beverage interventions reduce the risk of anemia and iron deficiency in school-aged children in low-middle income countries: a systematic review and meta-analysis by grant j. Aaron et al., nutrients 2015, 7(5), 3847-3868; doi:10.3390/nu7053847