In vitro fertilisation (or fertilization; IVF) is a process by which an egg is fertilised by sperm outside the body: in vitro ("in glass"). The process involves monitoring and stimulating a woman's ovulatory process, removing an ovum or ova (egg or eggs) from the woman's ovaries and letting sperm fertilise them in a liquid in a laboratory. The fertilised egg (zygote) is cultured for 2–6 days in a growth medium and is then implanted in the same or another woman's uterus, with the intention of establishing a successful pregnancy.
IVF techniques can be used in different types of situations. It is a technique of assisted reproductive technology for treatment ofinfertility. IVF techniques are also employed in gestational surrogacy, in which case the fertilised egg is implanted into a surrogate's uterus, and the resulting child is genetically unrelated to the surrogate. In some situations, donated eggs or sperms may be used. Some countries ban or otherwise regulate the availability of IVF treatment, giving rise to fertility tourism. Restrictions on availability of IVF include costs and age to carry a healthy pregnancy to term. Due to the costs of the procedure, IVF is mostly attempted only after less expensive options have failed.
The first successful birth of a "test tube baby", Louise Brown, occurred in 1978. Louise Brown was born as a result of natural cycle IVF where no stimulation was made. Robert G. Edwards, the physiologist who developed the treatment, was awarded theNobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine in 2010. With egg donation and IVF, women who are past their reproductive years ormenopause can still become pregnant. Adriana Iliescu held the record as the oldest woman to give birth using IVF and donated egg, when she gave birth in 2004 at the age of 66, a record passed in 2006. After the IVF treatment many couples are able to get pregnant without any fertility treatments.
We researched this topic for you and found the following best online resources. They are categorized into basic, advanced, and research level based on the extent of information you need. You will be taken to the respective websites by pressing on the links below.
http://www.hindawi.com/journals/bmri/2015/475362/ paraskevi matsota, eva kaminioti, and georgia kostopanagiotou, “anesthesia related toxic effects on in vitro fertilization outcome: burden of proof,” biomed research international, vol. 2015, article id 475362, 9 pages, 2015. Doi:10.1155/2015/475362
Momeni m, rahbar mh, kovanci e. A meta-analysis of the relationship between endometrial thickness and outcome of in vitro fertilization cycles. J hum reprod sci [serial online] 2011 [cited 2016 aug 22];4:130-7. Available from: http://www.jhrsonline.org/text.asp?2011/4/3/130/92287
Gutgutia r, rao s, garcia-velasco j, basu s. Scheduling cycles with gonadotropin-releasing hormone antagonist protocol in in vitrofertilization: is there a scope in batch in vitro fertilization?. J hum reprod sci [serial online] 2014 [cited 2016 aug 22];7:230-5. Available from: http://www.jhrsonline.org/text.asp?2014/7/4/230/147489
http://www.hindawi.com/journals/bmri/2016/3285179/ piotr marianowski, filip a. Dabrowski, aleksandra zygula, miroslaw wielgos, and iwona szymusik, “do we pay enough attention to culture conditions in context of perinatal outcome after in vitro fertilization? Up-to-date literature review,” biomed research international, vol. 2016, article id 3285179, 6 pages, 2016. Doi:10.1155/2016/3285179
Tandulwadkar sr, lodha pa, mangeshikar nt. Obstetric complications in women with ivf conceived pregnancies and polycystic ovarian syndrome. J hum reprod sci [serial online] 2014 [cited 2016 aug 22];7:13-8. Available from: http://www.jhrsonline.org/text.asp?2014/7/1/13/130802
http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ecam/2014/419425/ yuehui zhang, yiman fu, fengjuan han, hongying kuang, min hu, and xiaoke wu, “the effect of complementary and alternative medicine on subfertile women with in vitro fertilization,” evidence-based complementary and alternative medicine, vol. 2014, article id 419425, 22 pages, 2014. Doi:10.1155/2014/419425
http://www.hindawi.com/journals/criog/2014/481380/ yesim bayoglu tekin, emine seda guvendag guven, ibrahim sehitoglu, and suleyman guven, “tubal pregnancy associated with endometrial carcinoma after in vitro fertilization attempts,” case reports in obstetrics and gynecology, vol. 2014, article id 481380, 4 pages, 2014. Doi:10.1155/2014/481380