An intrauterine device (IUD or coil) is a small contraceptive device, often 'T'-shaped, often containing either copper or levonorgestrel, which is inserted into the uterus. They are one form of long-acting reversible contraception which are the most effective types of reversible birth control. Failure rates with the copper IUD is about 0.8% while the levonorgestrel IUD has a failure rate of 0.2% in the first year of use. Among types of birth control they, along with birth control implants, result in the greatest satisfaction among users. In 2007, IUDs were the most widely used form of reversible contraception, with more than 180 million users worldwide.
Evidence supports effectiveness and safety in adolescents and those who have and have not previously had children. IUDs do not affect breastfeeding and can be inserted immediately after delivery. They may also be used immediately after an abortion. Once removed, even after long term use, fertility returns to normal immediately.
While copper IUDs may increase menstrual bleeding and result in more painful cramps, hormonal IUDs may reduce menstrual bleeding or stop menstruation altogether. Cramping can be treated with NSAIDs. Other potential complications include expulsion (2–5%) and rarely perforation of the uterus (less than 0.7%). A previous model of the intrauterine device (the Dalkon shield) was associated with an increased risk of pelvic inflammatory disease; however, the risk is not affected with current models in those without sexually transmitted infections around the time of insertion.
We researched this topic for you and found the following best online resources. They are categorized into basic, advanced, and research level based on the extent of information you need. You will be taken to the respective websites by pressing on the links below.
Http://ijmrhs.com/42/15%20priyanka%20et%20al asesment of awarenes and beliefs regarding intra uterine device amongst its former users attending tertiary care centre in gujarat by jogiya priyanka d et al., int j med res health sci. 2015;4(2):32-38
Http://www.jemds.com/data_pdf/2_suja%20marry%20george%20%20%20%20.pdf suja mary george, mary george, annie soman, deepa bavan. “retension rate of intra caesarian insertion of intrauterine contraceptive device and evaluation of complications”. Journal of evolution of medical and dental sciences 2015; vol. 4, issue 20, march 09; page: 3522-3531, doi: 10.14260/jemds/2015/507
Http://www.scopemed.org/fulltextpdf.php?Mno=165085 role of levonorgestrel releasing intra-uterine system in the treatment of menorrhagia due to dysfunctional uterine bleeding and fibroid uterus by gupta r et al. Int j reprod contracept obstet gynecol. 2014 sep;3(3):671-677
Pandey d et al. Int j reprod contracept obstet gynecol. 2014 dec;3(4):1110-1112
Http://www.scopemed.org/fulltextpdf.php?Mno=1687 misoprostol (pge1) versus dinoprostone gel (pge2) in induction of labour in late intra uterine fetal death with unfavourable cervix: a prospective comparative study by biswas t. Int j reprod contracept obstet gynecol. 2015 feb;4(1):35-37