inguinal-hernia
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Inguinal hernia

Inguinal hernia

Last Reviewed : 12/24/2020
Inguinal hernia

An inguinal hernia is a protrusion of abdominal-cavity contents through the inguinal canal. Symptoms are present in about 66% of affected people. This may include pain or discomfort especially with coughing, exercise, or bowel movements. Often it gets worse throughout the day and improves when lying down. A bulging area may occur that becomes larger when bearing down. Inguinal hernias occur more often on the right than left side. The main concern is strangulation, where the blood supply to part of the intestine is blocked. This usually produces severe pain and tenderness of the area.

Risk factors for the development of a hernia include: smoking, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, obesity, pregnancy, peritoneal dialysis, collagen vascular disease, and previous open appendectomy, among others. Hernias are partly genetic and occur more often in certain families. It is unclear if inguinal hernias are associated with heavy lifting. Hernias can often be diagnosed based on signs and symptoms. Occasionally medical imaging is used to confirm the diagnosis or rule out other possible causes.

Groin hernias that do not cause symptoms in males do not need to be repaired. Repair, however, is generally recommended in females due to the higher rate of femoral hernias which have more complications. If strangulation occurs immediate surgery is required. Repair may be done by open surgery or by laparoscopic surgery. Open surgery has the benefit of possibly being done under local anesthesia rather than general anesthesia. Laparoscopic surgery generally has less pain following the procedure.

About 27% of males and 3% of females develop a groin hernia at some time in their life. Groin hernias occur most often before the age of one and after the age of fifty. Inguinal, femoral and abdominal hernias resulted in 51,000 deaths in 2013 and 55,000 in 1990.

 

We researched this topic for you and found the following best online resources. They are categorized into basic, advanced, and research level based on the extent of information you need. You will be taken to the respective websites by pressing on the links below.

 

Basic information:

http://www.healthline.com/health/inguinal-hernia health line inguinal hernia

http://www.webmd.com/digestive-disorders/tc/inguinal-hernia-topic-overview web md inguinal hernia - topic overview

http://www.nhs.uk/conditions/inguinalherniarepair/pages/whatisitpage.aspx nhs uk inguinal hernia repair

http://www.mayoclinic.org/diseases-conditions/inguinal-hernia/home/ovc-20206354 inguinal hernia mayo clinic definition

http://www.niddk.nih.gov/health-information/health-topics/digestive-diseases/inguinal-hernia/pages/facts.aspx national institute of digestive and diabetic and kidney diseases inguinal hernia

https://www.healthychildren.org/english/health-issues/conditions/abdominal/pages/inguinal-hernia.aspx healthy children.org inguinal hernia

https://www.merckmanuals.com/professional/gastrointestinal-disorders/acute-abdomen-and-surgical-gastroenterology/hernias-of-the-abdominal-wall meck manuals(professional) hernias of the abdominal wall by parswa ansari, md

https://www.betterhealth.vic.gov.au/health/conditionsandtreatments/hernias better health hernias

http://www.healthlinkbc.ca/healthtopics/content.asp?hwid=hw170907 health link bc inguinal hernia

https://myhealth.alberta.ca/health/pages/conditions.aspx?hwid=hw169199 my health alberta.ca inguinal hernia: surgery in adults

 

Advanced information:

http://patient.info/doctor/inguinal-hernias patient inguinal hernias

http://emedicine.medscape.com/article/1534281-overview medscape open inguinal hernia repair

http://radiopaedia.org/articles/direct-inguinal-hernia radiopedia direct inguinal hernia

http://www.fpnotebook.com/surgery/gi/ingnlhrn.htm family practise note book inguinal hernia

http://my.clevelandclinic.org/childrens-hospital/health-info/diseases-conditions/hic_inguinal_hernia_treatment_for_children clevland clinic inguinal hernia treatment for children

http://www.aafp.org/afp/2013/0615/p844.html inguinal hernias: diagnosis and management by kim edward leblanc, md, phd; leanne l. Leblanc, md; and karl a. Leblanc, md, mba, louisiana state university school of medicine, new orleans, louisiana am fam physician. 2013 jun 15;87(12):844-848.

http://www.surgeryencyclopedia.com/fi-la/inguinal-hernia-repair.html encyclopedia of surgery inguinal hernia repair

http://www.medscape.org/viewarticle/420354_2 medscape inguinal hernia: anatomy and management

https://www.symptoma.com/en/info/inguinal-hernia symptoma inguinal hernia

 

Research:

http://abjs.mums.ac.ir/pdf_4582_f813d75a7f51b54d6b43c562625561e2.html research article:inguinal abnormalities in male patients with acetabular fractures treated using an ilioinguinal exposure by reza firoozabadi, md; paul stafford, md; milton routt, md arch bone jt surg. 2015; 3(4):274-279.

http://wjes.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/1749-7922-5-14 a pin in appendix within amyand's hernia in a six-years-old boy: case report and review of literature by sadik s llullaku et al., world journal of emergency surgery20105:14 doi: 10.1186/1749-7922-5-14

Bhandarkar ds, shankar m, udwadia te. Laparoscopic surgery for inguinal hernia: current status and controversies. J min access surg [serial online] 2006 [cited 2016 jun 14];2:178-86. Available from: http://www.journalofmas.com/text.asp?2006/2/3/178/27735

http://www.hindawi.com/journals/cris/2014/932638/ case reports in surgery
volume 2014 (2014), article id 932638, 3 pages http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2014/932638 case report:appendicitis in de garengeot's hernia presenting as a nontender inguinal mass: case report and review of the literature by k. Ahmed et al.,

http://journal.frontiersin.org/article/10.3389/fsurg.2014.00020/full mini review article front. Surg., 20 june 2014 | http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fsurg.2014.00020 tailored approach in inguinal hernia repair – decision tree based on the guidelines by ferdinand köckerling

http://europepmc.org/backend/ptpmcrender.fcgi?accid=pmc4529205&blobtype=pdf nie x, xiao d, wang w, song z, yang z,chen y, et al. (2015) comparison of porcine small intestinal submucosa versus polypropylene in open inguinal hernia repair: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Plos one 10(8): e0135073. Doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0135073

Pampal a, aksakal ed. Littre hernia in childhood: a case report with a brief review of the literature. Afr j paediatr surg [serial online] 2011 [cited 2016 jun 14];8:221-4. Available from: http://www.afrjpaedsurg.org/text.asp?2011/8/2/221/86068

Kumar a, ramakrishnan t s. Single port laparoscopic repair of paediatric inguinal hernias: our experience at a secondary care centre. J min access surg [serial online] 2013 [cited 2016 jun 14];9:7-12. Available from: http://www.journalofmas.com/text.asp?2013/9/1/7/107126

Olasehinde oo, adisa ao, agbakwuru ea, etonyeaku ac, kolawole oa, mosanya ao. A 5-year review of darning technique of inguinal hernia repair. Niger j surg [serial online] 2015 [cited 2016 jun 14];21:52-5. Available from: http://www.nigerianjsurg.com/text.asp?2015/21/1/52/152722

Crankson sj, al tawil k, al namshan m, al jadaan s, baylon bj, gieballa m, ahmed ih. Management of inguinal hernia in premature infants: 10-year experience . J indian assoc pediatr surg [serial online] 2015 [cited 2016 jun 14];20:21-4. Available from: http://www.jiaps.com/text.asp?2015/20/1/21/145440

http://www.jemds.com/data_pdf/prajapathi.pdf unusual presentations in inguinal hernia: four cases with review of literature. By r. M. Prajapati et al., journal of evolution of medical and dental sciences/ volume 2/ issue 18/ may 6, 2013

Manoharan s, swindells m g, tsang t. Laparoscopic inguinal hernia repair in children: the early learning curve of the trainer and trainees. J indian assoc pediatr surg [serial online] 2006 [cited 2016 jun 14];11:227-30. Available from: http://www.jiaps.com/text.asp?2006/11/4/227/29606

 

Other articles:

http://www.petmd.com/dog/conditions/muscokeletal/c_dg_dog_hernia_inguinal pet md hernia (inguinal) in dogs

http://www.peteducation.com/article.cfm?c=2+2090&aid=442 pet education inguinal, umbilical and diaphragmatic hernias in dogs

 

Related videos:

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=7qza2np0rai inguinal hernia

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=_g2x8jvugp4 inguinal hernia surgery 3d medical animation - open procedure

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=r6pwlivqpva inguinal hernia (2009)

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=l9e9pa6otvw examination for hernias of the inguinal region

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=yweuz8wvvni laparoscopic inguinal hernia repair

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=9tb0kss7hno open inguinal hernia repair using the parietex easegrip™ mesh

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=kcrykd8ahxq inguinal hernias (usmle tutorial)

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