Inguinal hernia

Inguinal hernia

Last Reviewed : 12/24/2020
Inguinal hernia

An inguinal hernia is a protrusion of abdominal-cavity contents through the inguinal canal. Symptoms are present in about 66% of affected people. This may include pain or discomfort especially with coughing, exercise, or bowel movements. Often it gets worse throughout the day and improves when lying down. A bulging area may occur that becomes larger when bearing down. Inguinal hernias occur more often on the right than left side. The main concern is strangulation, where the blood supply to part of the intestine is blocked. This usually produces severe pain and tenderness of the area.

Risk factors for the development of a hernia include: smoking, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, obesity, pregnancy, peritoneal dialysis, collagen vascular disease, and previous open appendectomy, among others. Hernias are partly genetic and occur more often in certain families. It is unclear if inguinal hernias are associated with heavy lifting. Hernias can often be diagnosed based on signs and symptoms. Occasionally medical imaging is used to confirm the diagnosis or rule out other possible causes.

Groin hernias that do not cause symptoms in males do not need to be repaired. Repair, however, is generally recommended in females due to the higher rate of femoral hernias which have more complications. If strangulation occurs immediate surgery is required. Repair may be done by open surgery or by laparoscopic surgery. Open surgery has the benefit of possibly being done under local anesthesia rather than general anesthesia. Laparoscopic surgery generally has less pain following the procedure.

About 27% of males and 3% of females develop a groin hernia at some time in their life. Groin hernias occur most often before the age of one and after the age of fifty. Inguinal, femoral and abdominal hernias resulted in 51,000 deaths in 2013 and 55,000 in 1990.


We researched this topic for you and found the following best online resources. They are categorized into basic, advanced, and research level based on the extent of information you need. You will be taken to the respective websites by pressing on the links below.


Basic information: health line inguinal hernia web md inguinal hernia - topic overview nhs uk inguinal hernia repair inguinal hernia mayo clinic definition national institute of digestive and diabetic and kidney diseases inguinal hernia healthy inguinal hernia meck manuals(professional) hernias of the abdominal wall by parswa ansari, md better health hernias health link bc inguinal hernia my health inguinal hernia: surgery in adults


Advanced information: patient inguinal hernias medscape open inguinal hernia repair radiopedia direct inguinal hernia family practise note book inguinal hernia clevland clinic inguinal hernia treatment for children inguinal hernias: diagnosis and management by kim edward leblanc, md, phd; leanne l. Leblanc, md; and karl a. Leblanc, md, mba, louisiana state university school of medicine, new orleans, louisiana am fam physician. 2013 jun 15;87(12):844-848. encyclopedia of surgery inguinal hernia repair medscape inguinal hernia: anatomy and management symptoma inguinal hernia


Research: research article:inguinal abnormalities in male patients with acetabular fractures treated using an ilioinguinal exposure by reza firoozabadi, md; paul stafford, md; milton routt, md arch bone jt surg. 2015; 3(4):274-279. a pin in appendix within amyand's hernia in a six-years-old boy: case report and review of literature by sadik s llullaku et al., world journal of emergency surgery20105:14 doi: 10.1186/1749-7922-5-14

Bhandarkar ds, shankar m, udwadia te. Laparoscopic surgery for inguinal hernia: current status and controversies. J min access surg [serial online] 2006 [cited 2016 jun 14];2:178-86. Available from: case reports in surgery
volume 2014 (2014), article id 932638, 3 pages case report:appendicitis in de garengeot's hernia presenting as a nontender inguinal mass: case report and review of the literature by k. Ahmed et al., mini review article front. Surg., 20 june 2014 | tailored approach in inguinal hernia repair – decision tree based on the guidelines by ferdinand köckerling nie x, xiao d, wang w, song z, yang z,chen y, et al. (2015) comparison of porcine small intestinal submucosa versus polypropylene in open inguinal hernia repair: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Plos one 10(8): e0135073. Doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0135073

Pampal a, aksakal ed. Littre hernia in childhood: a case report with a brief review of the literature. Afr j paediatr surg [serial online] 2011 [cited 2016 jun 14];8:221-4. Available from:

Kumar a, ramakrishnan t s. Single port laparoscopic repair of paediatric inguinal hernias: our experience at a secondary care centre. J min access surg [serial online] 2013 [cited 2016 jun 14];9:7-12. Available from:

Olasehinde oo, adisa ao, agbakwuru ea, etonyeaku ac, kolawole oa, mosanya ao. A 5-year review of darning technique of inguinal hernia repair. Niger j surg [serial online] 2015 [cited 2016 jun 14];21:52-5. Available from:

Crankson sj, al tawil k, al namshan m, al jadaan s, baylon bj, gieballa m, ahmed ih. Management of inguinal hernia in premature infants: 10-year experience . J indian assoc pediatr surg [serial online] 2015 [cited 2016 jun 14];20:21-4. Available from: unusual presentations in inguinal hernia: four cases with review of literature. By r. M. Prajapati et al., journal of evolution of medical and dental sciences/ volume 2/ issue 18/ may 6, 2013

Manoharan s, swindells m g, tsang t. Laparoscopic inguinal hernia repair in children: the early learning curve of the trainer and trainees. J indian assoc pediatr surg [serial online] 2006 [cited 2016 jun 14];11:227-30. Available from:


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