Last Reviewed : 12/24/2020

Hypothermia is defined as a body core temperature below 35.0 °C (95.0 °F). Symptoms depend on the temperature. In mild hypothermia there is shivering and mental confusion. In moderate hypothermia shivering stops and confusion increases. In severe hypothermia there may be paradoxical undressing, in which a person removes his or her clothing, as well as an increased risk of the heart stopping.

Hypothermia has two main types of causes. It classically occurs from exposure to extreme cold. It may also occur from any condition that decreases heat production or increases heat loss. Commonly this includes alcohol intoxication but may also include low blood sugar, anorexia, and advanced age, among others. Body temperature is usually maintained near a constant level of 36.5–37.5 °C (97.7–99.5 °F) through thermoregulation. Efforts to increase body temperature involve shivering, increased voluntary activity, and putting on warmer clothing. Hypothermia may be diagnosed based on either a person's symptoms in the presence of risk factors or by measuring a person's core temperature.

The treatment of mild hypothermia involves warm drinks, warm clothing and physical activity. In those with moderate hypothermia heating blankets and warmed intravenous fluids are recommended. People with moderate or severe hypothermia should be moved gently. In severe hypothermia extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) or cardiopulmonary bypass may be useful. In those without a pulse cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) is indicated along with the above measures. Rewarming is typically continued until a person's temperature is greater than 32 °C (90 °F). If there is no improvement at this point or the blood potassium level is greater than 12 mmol/liter at any time resuscitation may be discontinued.

Hypothermia is the cause of at least 1500 deaths a year in the United States. It is more common in older people and males. One of the lowest documented body temperatures from which someone with accidental hypothermia has survived is 13.0 °C (55.4 °F) in a near-drowning of a 7-year-old girl in Sweden. Survival after more than six hours of CPR has been described. In those in whom ECMO or bypass is used survival is around 50%.Deaths due to hypothermia have played an important role in many wars. Hyperthermia is the opposite of hypothermia, being an increased body temperature due to failed thermoregulation. The term is from Greek ?p? meaning under and ?e?µ?a meaning heat.


We researched this topic for you and found the following best online resources. They are categorized into basic, advanced, and research level based on the extent of information you need. You will be taken to the respective websites by pressing on the links below.


Basic information:

Http://www.webmd.com/a-to-z-guides/what-is-hypothermia#1 web md what is hypothermia?

Http://www.mayoclinic.org/diseases-conditions/hypothermia/basics/definition/con-20020453 mayoclinic hypothermia

Http://www.nhs.uk/conditions/hypothermia/pages/causes.aspx nhs uk hypothermia

Https://medlineplus.gov/ency/article/000038.htm medline plus hypothermia

Http://umm.edu/health/medical/altmed/condition/hypothermia university of maryland medical center hypothermia

Http://www.altitude.org/hypothermia.php altitude hypothermia

Http://www.healthline.com/symptom/hypothermia merck manuals (professional version) hypothermia

Https://www.healthdirect.gov.au/hypothermia health direct hypothermia

Http://www.nytimes.com/health/guides/injury/hypothermia/overview.html new york times hypothermia


Advanced information:

Http://www.medicalnewstoday.com/articles/182197.php medical news today hypothermia: causes, symptoms and treatments

Http://emedicine.medscape.com/article/770542-overview medscape hypothermia

Https://medlineplus.gov/hypothermia.html medline plus hypothermia

Http://patient.info/in/doctor/hypothermia-pro patient hypothermia

Http://www.medicinenet.com/hypothermia_extended_exposure_to_cold/article.htm medicine net hypothermia

Http://www.emedicinehealth.com/hypothermia/article_em.htm emedicine health hypothermia in neonates

Https://www.msdmanuals.com/professional/pediatrics/perinatal-problems/hypothermia-in-neonates msd manuals (professional version) hypothermia in neonates

Http://lifeinthefastlane.com/ecg-library/basics/hypothermia/ life in the fast lane hypothermia

Https://www.britannica.com/science/hypothermia britannica hypothermia

Http://www.clevelandclinicmeded.com/online/casebased/outcomesresearch/hypothermia/content2.htm cleveland clinic medicine prevention and treatment of perioperative hypothermia

Http://www.who.int/elena/titles/bbc/hypothermia_sam/en/ world health organisation preventing and treating hypothermia in severely malnourished children



Https://www.hindawi.com/journals/cripe/2013/514232/ kam lun hon, joshua j. X. Li, bernadette l. Y. Cheng, and alexander k. C. Leung, “septicemia in a neonate following therapeutic hypothermia: the literature review of evidence,” case reports in pediatrics, vol. 2013, article id 514232, 3 pages, 2013. Doi:10.1155/2013/514232

Http://journal.frontiersin.org/article/10.3389/fneur.2012.00144/full review article front. Neurol., 02 november 2012 | http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fneur.2012.00144 biomarkers of hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy in newborns by martha douglas-escobar and michael d. Weiss

Honore pm, jacobs r, hendrickx i, troubleyn j, de waele e, spapen hd. What's new in emergencies, trauma, and shock: intentional or accidental hypothermia in intensive care unit patients: time to strike the colors?. J emerg trauma shock [serial online] 2016 [cited 2016 oct 14];9:93-4. Available from: http://www.onlinejets.org/text.asp?2016/9/3/93/185277

Https://www.hindawi.com/journals/cricc/2014/139342/ f. A. Zeiler, l. M. Gillman, j. Teitelbaum, and m. West, “early implementation of tham for icp control: therapeutic hypothermia avoidance and reduction in hypertonics/hyperosmotics,” case reports in critical care, vol. 2014, article id 139342, 4 pages, 2014. Doi:10.1155/2014/139342

Http://sjtrem.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/1757-7241-20-6 serial measurement of neuron specific enolase improves prognostication in cardiac arrest patients treated with hypothermia: a prospective study by christian storm et al., scandinavian journal of trauma, resuscitation and emergency medicine201220:6 doi: 10.1186/1757-7241-20-6

Http://bmcneurosci.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/1471-2202-9-100 anaesthesia generates neuronal insulin resistance by inducing hypothermia by christian holscher et al., bmc neuroscience20089:100 doi: 10.1186/1471-2202-9-100

Jain i s, agarwal d c, singh k, chitambar i a. Physiological considerations from ocular changes in hypothermia during cardiac surgery. Indian j ophthalmol [serial online] 1967 [cited 2016 oct 14];15:203-12. Available from: http://www.ijo.in/text.asp?1967/15/6/203/38811

Petterson t, lyon l, peckler b. Hypothermic overdose, not all bad?. J emerg trauma shock [serial online] 2013 [cited 2016 oct 14];6:227-9. Available from: http://www.onlinejets.org/text.asp?2013/6/3/227/115356

Http://respiratory-research.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/rr128 effects of hypoxia and hypothermia on the end-inspiratory pause and hering-breüer reflex in the neonatal tammar wallaby by pb frappell respiratory research20012(suppl 1):p12 doi: 10.1186/rr128

Http://europepmc.org/backend/ptpmcrender.fcgi?Accid=pmc4186877&blobtype=pdf sabir h, walløe l, dingley j, smit e, liu x, et al. (2014) combined treatment of xenon and hypothermia in newborn rats - additive or synergistic effect? Plos one 9(10): e109845. Doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0109845

Http://bmcpediatr.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/1471-2431-8-17 the toby study. Whole body hypothermia for the treatment of perinatal asphyxial encephalopathy: a randomised controlled trial by dennis azzopardi et al., bmc pediatrics20088:17 doi: 10.1186/1471-2431-8-17

Http://www.nejm.org/doi/full/10.1056/nejmoa012689#t=article mild therapeutic hypothermia to improve the neurologic outcome after cardiac arrest the hypothermia after cardiac arrest study group*n engl j med 2002; 346:549-556february 21, 2002doi: 10.1056/nejmoa012689


Other articles:

Http://www.petmd.com/dog/conditions/cardiovascular/c_multi_hypothermia pet md hypothermia

Http://www.peteducation.com/article.cfm?C=2+1677&aid=301 pet education hypothermia in dogs

Https://www.cesarsway.com/dog-care/safety/hypothermia-keeping-your-dog-safe-in-the-cold cesars way hypothermia: keeping your dog safe in the cold

Http://veterinarymedicine.dvm360.com/cold-critters-assessing-preventing-and-treating-hypothermia dvm 360 cold critters: assessing, preventing, and treating hypothermia


Other helpful resources(support groups):

Https://www.hypothermia-registry.org/ international hypothermia registry



Related videos:

Https://www.youtube.com/watch?V=hmo0dfo2otg hypothermia , update - everything you need to know - dr. Nabil ebraheim

Https://www.youtube.com/watch?V=uznfcxkc5tg hypothermia - signs and symptoms – treatment

Https://www.youtube.com/watch?V=0mbtocd8ioc hypothermia - low body temperature - causes, symptoms, treatment protocol

Https://www.youtube.com/watch?V=wxgub70qcqs life threatening hypothermia emergency

Https://www.youtube.com/watch?V=konbg12n0jq low body temperature symptoms


Presentations/quiz/newspaper articles:

Https://www.scientificamerican.com/article/hypothermia-found-to-be-common-during-anesthesia-increasing-need-for-transfusion/ scientific american hypothermia found to be common during anesthesia, increasing need for transfusion

Https://www.theguardian.com/education/2003/feb/27/research.science the guardian the chill that kills

Http://www.dailymail.co.uk/news/article-3417354/two-year-old-boy-dead-woods-desperate-week-long-search-died-hypothermia-autopsy-reveals.html daily mail two-year-old boy who was found dead in the woods after desperate week-long search died of hypothermia, autopsy reveals

read more: http://www.dailymail.co.uk/news/article-3417354/two-year-old-boy-dead-woods-desperate-week-long-search-died-hypothermia-autopsy-reveals.html#ixzz4n7l83jky

Http://www.nydailynews.com/entertainment/music/country-singer-craig-strickland-died-hypothermia-article-1.2577076new york daily news country singer craig strickland died of hypothermia, death ruled accidental

Http://www.latimes.com/nation/nationnow/la-na-baby-refrigerator-south-carolina-20160823-snap-story.html los angeles times mom killed newborn by putting him in refrigerator, deputies say

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