Last Reviewed : 12/24/2020

Hypospadias /ha?po?'spe?d??s/ is a birth defect of the urethra in the male where the urinary opening is not at the usual location on the head of the penis. It is the second most common birth abnormality in boys, affecting approximately 1 of every 250. In approximately 90% of cases, the opening (meatus) is on or near the head of the penis (glans), referred to as distal hypospadias, while the remainder have proximal hypospadias with a meatus near or within the scrotum. Shiny tissue seen extending from the meatus to the tip of the glans, which would have made the urinary channel, is referred to as the urethral plate.

In most cases the foreskin is also underdeveloped and does not wrap completely around the penis, leaving the underside of the glans penis uncovered. There may also be downward bending of the penis, commonly referred to as chordee. This is found in 10% of distal hypospadias and 50% of proximal hypospadias at the time of surgery. The scrotum may be higher than usual to either side of the penis, called penoscrotal transposition, adding to the abnormal overall appearance.

Hypospadias is thought to result from failure of the urinary channel to completely tubularize to the end of the penis. The cause of hypospadias is not known. Most often, it is the only abnormal finding, although in about 10% of cases hypospadias may be part of a syndrome with multiple abnormalities.

The most common associated defect is an undescended testicle, which has been reported in approximately 3% of infants with distal hypospadias and 10% of those having proximal hypospadias. The combination of hypospadias and an undescended testicle sometimes indicates a disorder of sexual differentiation, and so additional testing may be recommended.

Otherwise no blood tests or X-rays are routinely needed in newborns with hypospadias.


We researched this topic for you and found the following best online resources. They are categorized into basic, advanced, and research level based on the extent of information you need. You will be taken to the respective websites by pressing on the links below.


Basic information:

http://www.cdc.gov/ncbddd/birthdefects/hypospadias.html cdc facts about hypospadias

http://www.mayoclinic.org/diseases-conditions/hypospadias/basics/definition/con-20031354 mayo clinic definition

https://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/ency/article/001286.htm medline plus hypospadias

https://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/ency/article/003000.htm medline plus hypospadias repair

http://my.clevelandclinic.org/health/diseases_conditions/hic_hypospadias clevland clinic hypospadias

http://www.webmd.com/parenting/baby/tc/hypospadias-topic-overview web md hypospadias - topic overview

http://www.hopkinsmedicine.org/healthlibrary/conditions/adult/pediatrics/hypospadias_22,hypospadias/ john hopkins medicine hypospadias

https://www.ucdmc.ucdavis.edu/urology/downloads/kurzrock_handouts_pdf/hypospadias_handout.pdf dr. Kurzrock - pediatric urology: patient education handout hypospadias

http://www.healthlinkbc.ca/healthtopics/content.asp?hwid=tv7720spec health link bc hypospadias

https://www.healthychildren.org/english/health-issues/conditions/genitourinary-tract/pages/hypospadias-a-birth-defect-of-the-penis.aspx healthy children hypospadias: a birth defect of the penis

http://www.healthcommunities.com/hypospadias/children/overview-of-hypospadias.shtml health communities hypospadias overview

http://www.pediatricurology.in/knowledge-bank-hypospadias.htm pediatric urology hypospadias

http://www.emedicinehealth.com/hypospadias-health/article_em.htm emedicine health hypospadias

http://www.nytimes.com/health/guides/disease/hypospadias/overview.html new york times hypospadias


Advanced information:

http://emedicine.medscape.com/article/1015227-overview medscape hypospadias

http://emedicine.medscape.com/article/1297569-overview medscape penile hypospadias reconstruction

http://patient.info/health/hypospadias-leaflet patient hypospadias

http://www.urology-textbook.com/hypospadias.html urology text book.com hypospadias: causes, diagnosis and treatment

http://www.pediatricurologybook.com/hypospadias.html pediatric urology .com hypospadias

http://www.genitalsurgerybelgrade.com/urogenital_surgery_detail.php?hypospadias/6 hypospadias

https://embryology.med.unsw.edu.au/embryology/index.php/genital_abnormality_-_hypospadia genital abnormality - hypospadia

http://radiopaedia.org/articles/hypospadias radiopedia hypospadias

http://www.britannica.com/science/hypospadias britannica hypospadias

https://www.hawaii.edu/medicine/pediatrics/pedtext/s13c12.html case based pediatrics for medical students and residents department of pediatrics, university of hawaii john a. Burns school of medicine chapter xiii.12. Hypospadias by robert g. Carlile, md july 2003



Mohan d, sugathan dk, railey m, alrukhaimi m. Renal failure in hay-wells syndrome. Saudi j kidney dis transpl [serial online] 2013 [cited 2016 jun 14];24:1214-6. Available from: http://www.sjkdt.org/text.asp?2013/24/6/1214/121301

Abdelrahman my, abdeljaleel ia, mohamed e, bagadi ato, khair oe. Hypospadias in sudan, clinical and surgical review. Afr j paediatr surg [serial online] 2011 [cited 2016 jun 14];8:269-71. Available from: http://www.afrjpaedsurg.org/text.asp?2011/8/3/269/91654

http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=s0102-86502010000200012 dartos flap coverage of the neourethra following repair for primary hypospadias, reoperative hypospadias and urethrocutaneous fistulas. It is a safe approachacta cir. Bras. Vol.25 no.2 são paulo mar./apr. 2010 http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/s0102-86502010000200012 12 - original article experimental urology by hayrettin ozturk

http://medind.nic.in/jav/t14/i2/javt14i2p95.pdf recent advances in hypospadias by prabudh goel, minu bajpai, ajay verma jimsa april - june 2014 vol. 27 no. 2

http://tau.amegroups.com/article/view/3753/4679 management of adults with prior failed hypospadias surgery by james r. Craig, chad wallis, william o. Brant, james m. Hotaling, jeremy b. Myers vol 3, no 2 (june 2014)

http://www.cirp.org/library/restoration/gray1/ glanular reconstruction and preputioplasty repair for distal hypospadias: a unique day-case method to avoid urethral stenting and preserve the prepuce by j. Gray and v.e. Boston bju international, volume 91, issue 3: page 268-270, february 2003

http://www.europeanurology.com/article/s0302-2838(09)00088-8/pdf/prevalence-of-hypospadias-in-european-countries-is-it-increasing prevalence of hypospadias in european countries: is it increasing? By paolo caione et al,european urology 55 (2009) 1027–1030

http://www.ajol.info/index.php/aps/article/viewfile/70243/58432 two stages repair of proximal hypospadias: review of 33 cases by hatem a. Saafan annals of pediatric surgery vol. 6, no 2, april 2010, pp 89-92

http://brazjurol.com.br/maio/arap_304_314.pdf penoscrotal hypospadias by sami arap, anuar ibrahim mitre brazilian journal of urology,official journal of the brazilian society of urology vol. 26 (3): 304-314, may - june, 2000


Other articles:

http://www.vetbook.org/wiki/dog/index.php?title=hypospadias vet book hypospadias

http://vri.cz/docs/vetmed/50-11-506.pdf hypospadias in three calves: a case report by m.r. Alam, s.h. Shin, h.b. Lee, i.h. Choi, n.s. Kim vet. Med. – czech, 50, 2005 (11): 506–509

http://thejaps.org.pk/docs/v-23-2/51.pdf hypospadias and urethral diverticulum in two goat kids: a case report by s. G. Bokhari the journal of animal & plant sciences, 23(2): 2013, page: 675-677


Other helpful resources(support groups):

http://heainfo.org/ hypospadiasis and epispadiasis association

http://www.hypospadiasfoundation.com/faqs-for-hypospadias/ hypospadiasis foundation

http://www.hypospadiasuk.co.uk/ hypospadiasis uk


Related videos:

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=vehjqbkstdq hypospadias- surgical simulator .m4v

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=nmgbn1w3xme hypospadias tip snodgrass repair by hiep nguyen, md for openpediatrics

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=9gjyantqklu hypospadias

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=bqo8wxg-xve distal hypospadias repair animation

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=cehpbetizje meatal mobilisation for distal hypospadia

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=eyj11gwwpye hypospadias

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ofalqtjskok types of hypospadias


Presentations/quiz/newspaper articles:

http://www.telegraph.co.uk/men/health/everything-you-wanted-to-know-about-hypospadias-but-were-too-afr/telegraph everything you wanted to know about hypospadias but were too afraid to google

http://www.dailymail.co.uk/health/article-2829027/shockingly-common-cruel-birth-defect-thousands-men-have.htmldaily mail shockingly common, the cruel genital birth defect thousands of men have - but never talk about

read more: http://www.dailymail.co.uk/health/article-2829027/shockingly-common-cruel-birth-defect-thousands-men-have.html#ixzz4bzxreoug

http://www.independent.co.uk/life-style/health-and-families/health-news/essex-man-suffering-from-hypospadias-thought-he-was-the-only-man-in-the-world-with-a-one-inch-penis-a6770686.html independant essex man suffering from hypospadias thought he was the only man in the world with a one-inch penis

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