Last Reviewed : 12/24/2020

Hypoparathyroidism is decreased function of the parathyroid glands with underproduction of parathyroid hormone. This can lead tolow levels of calcium in the blood, often causing cramping and twitching of muscles or tetany (involuntary muscle contraction), and several other symptoms. The condition can be inherited, but it is also encountered after thyroid or parathyroid gland surgery, and it can be caused by immune system-related damage as well as a number of rarer causes. The diagnosis is made with blood tests, and other investigations such as genetic testing depending on the results. The treatment of hypoparathyroidism is limited by the fact that there is no artificial form of the hormone that can be administered as replacement; calcium replacement or vitamin D can ameliorate the symptoms but can increase the risk of kidney stones and chronic kidney disease.


We researched this topic for you and found the following best online resources. They are categorized into basic, advanced, and research level based on the extent of information you need. You will be taken to the respective websites by pressing on the links below.


Basic information:

http://www.healthline.com/health/hypoparathyroidism health line hypoparathyroidism

http://www.mayoclinic.org/diseases-conditions/hypoparathyroidism/basics/definition/con-20030780 mayoclinic hypoparathyroidism

https://medlineplus.gov/ency/article/000385.htm medline plus hypoparathyroidism

https://www.endocrineweb.com/conditions/hypoparathyroidism/hypoparathyroidism endocrine web hypoparathyroidism

http://www.nhs.uk/conditions/hypoparathyroidism-hyperparathyroidism/pages/introduction.aspx nhs uk hypoparathyroidism and hyperparathyroidism

http://www.webmd.com/women/hypoparathyroidism-rare#1 web md hypoparathyroidism

http://umm.edu/health/medical/altmed/condition/hypoparathyroidism university of maryland medical center hypoparathyroidism

http://www.everydayhealth.com/columns/my-health-story/hypoparathyroidism-ever-after/ everyday health hypoparathyroidism

http://www.nytimes.com/health/guides/disease/hypoparathyroidism/overview.html newyork times hypoparathyroidism


Advanced information:

http://emedicine.medscape.com/article/122207-overview medscape hypoparathyroidism

http://patient.info/in/doctor/hypoparathyroidism-pro patient hypoparathyroidism

https://rarediseases.org/rare-diseases/hypoparathyroidism/ national organisation for rare diseases hypoparathyroidism

http://patient.info/in/health/hypoparathyroidism-leaflet patient hypoparathyroidism

http://www.medicinenet.com/hypoparathyroidism/article.htm medicine net hypoparathyroidism

http://www.parathyroid.com/hypoparathyroidism.htm hypoparathyroidism. Too little parathyroid hormone. Low blood calcium from a lack of pth.

https://radiopaedia.org/articles/hypoparathyroidism radiopedia hypoparathyroidism

http://www.clevelandclinicmeded.com/medicalpubs/diseasemanagement/endocrinology/hypocalcemia/ cleveland medicine hypocalcemia

http://www.orthobullets.com/basic-science/9028/hypoparathyroidism orthobullets hypoparathyroidism

http://www.mdedge.com/node/5331/path_term/19 md edge hypoparathyroidism



https://www.hindawi.com/journals/crie/2011/281758/ i. R. Wallace, v. Mcconnell, p. M. Bell, and j. R. Lindsay, “challenges in management of primary hypoparathyroidism associated with autoimmune polyglandular syndrome type 1,” case reports in endocrinology, vol. 2011, article id 281758, 3 pages, 2011. Doi:10.1155/2011/281758

https://www.hindawi.com/journals/crie/2013/802793/ sira korpaisarn, objoon trachoo, and chutintorn sriphrapradang, “chromosome 22q11.2 deletion syndrome presenting as adult onset hypoparathyroidism: clues to diagnosis from dysmorphic facial features,” case reports in endocrinology, vol. 2013, article id 802793, 4 pages, 2013. Doi:10.1155/2013/802793

http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=s0004-282x2004000100028 arq. Neuro-psiquiatr. Vol.62 no.1 são paulo mar. 2004 http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/s0004-282x2004000100028 hypocalcemic myopathy without tetany due to idiopathic hypoparathyroidism: case report by daniel bocchese nora et al.,

https://www.hindawi.com/journals/crie/2012/739375/ c. R. Van rooijen, m. B. Kok, s. Simsek, and f. Stam, “ain’t no sunshine when she’s gone: pseudohypoparathyroidism discovered in an adult,” case reports in endocrinology, vol. 2012, article id 739375, 3 pages, 2012. Doi:10.1155/2012/739375

Visconti p, posar a, scaduto mc, russo a, tamburrino f, mazzanti l. Neuropsychiatric phenotype in a child with pseudohypoparathyroidism. J pediatr neurosci [serial online] 2016 [cited 2017 jan 2];11:267-70. Available from: http://www.pediatricneurosciences.com/text.asp?2016/11/3/267/193373

Fatima j, karoli r, jain v. Hypoparathyroidism in a case of wilson's disease: rare association of a rare disorder. Indian j endocr metab [serial online] 2013 [cited 2017 jan 2];17:361-2. Available from: http://www.ijem.in/text.asp?2013/17/2/361/109689

Ghosh k, sengupta n, sau tj, chatterjee a. Rare presentation of a common disease: idiopathic hypoparathyroidism presenting with extrapyramidal symptoms and status epilepticus. Indian j endocr metab [serial online] 2012 [cited 2017 jan 2];16:1035-6. Available from: http://www.ijem.in/text.asp?2012/16/6/1035/103035

Chakrabarty ad. Adult primary hypoparathyroidism: a rare presentation. Indian j endocr metab [serial online] 2013 [cited 2017 jan 2];17, suppl s1:201-2. Available from: http://www.ijem.in/text.asp?2013/17/7/201/119571

Meena d, prakash m, gupta y, bhadada sk, khandelwal n. Carotid, aorta and renal arteries intima-media thickness in patients with sporadic idiopathic hypoparathyroidism. Indian j endocr metab [serial online] 2015 [cited 2017 jan 2];19:262-6. Available from: http://www.ijem.in/text.asp?2015/19/2/262/149320

Kumar kj, kumar hc, manjunath vg, mamatha s. Hypoparathyroidism-retardation-dysmorphism syndrome. Indian j hum genet [serial online] 2013 [cited 2017 jan 2];19:363-5. Available from: http://www.ijhg.com/text.asp?2013/19/3/363/120814

https://www.hindawi.com/journals/crie/2016/6838626/ pooja e. Mishra, betsy l. Schwartz, kyriakie sarafoglou, kristen hook, youngki kim, and anna petryk, “short-term pth(1-34) therapy in children to correct severe hypocalcemia and hyperphosphatemia due to hypoparathyroidism: two case studies,” case reports in endocrinology, vol. 2016, article id 6838626, 4 pages, 2016. Doi:10.1155/2016/6838626

Bhadada sk, bhansali a, upreti v, subbiah s, khandelwal n. Spectrum of neurological manifestations of idiopathic hypoparathyroidism and pseudohypoparathyroidism. Neurol india [serial online] 2011 [cited 2017 jan 2];59:586-9. Available from: http://www.neurologyindia.com/text.asp?2011/59/4/586/84342

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/pmc3405491/ bilezikian j, khan a, potts j, et al. Hypoparathyroidism in the adult: epidemiology, diagnosis, pathophysiology, target organ involvement, treatment, and challenges for future research. Journal of bone and mineral research. 2011;26(10):2317-2337. Doi:10.1002/jbmr.483.


Other articles:

http://www.petmd.com/dog/conditions/endocrine/c_dg_hypoparathyroidism pet md low production of parathyroid hormone in dogs

http://www.merckvetmanual.com/musculoskeletal-system/dystrophies-associated-with-calcium,-phosphorus,-and-vitamin-d/hypoparathyroidism merck vet manual hypoparathyroidism

http://www.pethealthnetwork.com/dog-health/dog-diseases-conditions-a-z/canine-hypoparathyroidism pet health network canine hypoparathyroidism

http://veterinarymedicine.dvm360.com/diagnosing-and-treating-primary-hypoparathyroidism-dogs-and-cats dvm 360 diagnosing and treating primary hypoparathyroidism in dogs and cats


Related videos:

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Presentations/quiz/newspaper articles:

http://www.huffingtonpost.com/danielle-nicosia/thyroid-cancer-and-hypopa_b_6786370.html huffingtons post thyroid cancer and hypoparathyroidism

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