Last Reviewed : 12/24/2020

Hyperthyroidism is the condition that occurs due to excessive production of thyroid hormone by the thyroid gland. Thyrotoxicosis is the condition that occurs due to excessive thyroid hormone of any cause and therefore includes hyperthyroidism. Some, however, use the terms interchangeably. Signs and symptoms vary between people and may include irritability, muscle weakness, sleeping problems, a fast heartbeat, poor tolerance of heat, diarrhea, enlargement of the thyroid, and weight loss. Symptoms are typically less in the old and during pregnancy. An uncommon complication is thyroid storm in which an event such as an infection results in worsening symptoms such as confusion and a high temperature and often results in death. The opposite is hypothyroidism, when the thyroid gland does not make enough thyroid hormone.

Graves' disease is the cause of about 50% to 80% of case of hyperthyroidism in the United States. Other causes include multinodular goiter, toxic adenoma, inflammation of the thyroid, eating too much iodine, and too much synthetic thyroid hormone. A less common cause is a pituitary adenoma. The diagnosis may be suspected based on signs and symptoms and then confirmed with blood tests. Typically blood tests show a low thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) and raised T3 or T4. Radioiodine uptake by the thyroid, thyroid scan, and TSI antibodies may help determine the cause.

Treatment depends partly on the cause and severity of disease. There are three main treatment options: radioiodine therapy, medications, and thyroid surgery. Radioiodine therapy involves taking iodine-131 by mouth which is then concentrated in and destroys the thyroid over weeks to months. The resulting hypothyroidism is treated with synthetic thyroid hormone. Medications such as beta blockers may control the symptoms and anti-thyroid medications such as methimazole may temporarily help people while other treatments are having effect. Surgery to remove the thyroid is another option. This may be used in those with very large thyroids or when cancer is a concern. In the United States hyperthyroidism affects about 1.2% of the population. It occurs between two and ten times more often in women. Onset is commonly between 20 and 50 years of age. Overall the disease is more common in those over the age of 60 years.


We researched this topic for you and found the following best online resources. They are categorized into basic, advanced, and research level based on the extent of information you need. You will be taken to the respective websites by pressing on the links below.


Basic information:

http://www.healthline.com/health/hyperthyroidism health line what is hyperthyroidism?

http://www.endocrineweb.com/conditions/hyperthyroidism/hyperthyroidism-overview-overactive-thyroid endocrine web hyperthyroidism overview

http://www.mayoclinic.org/diseases-conditions/hyperthyroidism/basics/definition/con-20020986 mayoclinic hyperthyroidism

http://www.thyroid.org/hyperthyroidism/ thyroid.org hyperthyroidism

http://www.webmd.com/women/overactive-thyroid-hyperthyroidism web md overactive thyroid (hyperthyroidism)

https://medlineplus.gov/ency/article/000356.htm medline plus hyperthyroidism

https://www.betterhealth.vic.gov.au/health/conditionsandtreatments/thyroid-hyperthyroidism better health thyroid - hyperthyroidism

http://www.nhs.uk/conditions/thyroid-over-active/pages/introduction.aspx nhs uk overactive thyroid

http://umm.edu/health/medical/altmed/condition/hyperthyroidism university of maryland medical center hyperthyroidism

http://www.nytimes.com/health/guides/disease/hyperthyroidism/overview.html newyork times hyperthyroidism

http://my.clevelandclinic.org/health/diseases_conditions/hic_hyperthyroidism cleveland clinic hyperthyroidism

http://familydoctor.org/familydoctor/en/diseases-conditions/hyperthyroidism.html family doctor hyperthyroidism

http://www.everydayhealth.com/hyperthyroidism/guide/ everyday health what is hyperthyroidism?

http://www.healthdirect.gov.au/hyperthyroidism health direct hyperthyroidism

http://www.netdoctor.co.uk/conditions/a4458/hyperthyroidism-leading-to-increased-metabolism/ net doctor hyperthyroidism (leading to increased metabolism)

http://lifeinthefastlane.com/ecg-library/hyperthyroidism/ life in the fastlane hyperthyroidism

http://chealth.canoe.com/condition/getcondition/overactive-thyroid canoe hyperthyroidism

https://www.verywell.com/neonatal-hyperthyroidism-hyperthyroidism-3233173 very well neonatal hyperthyroidism and hyperthyroidism

http://www.healthlinkbc.ca/healthtopics/content.asp?hwid=hw149039 health link bc hyperthyroidism


Advanced information:

http://www.medicinenet.com/hyperthyroidism/article.htm medicine net.com hyperthyroidism

http://emedicine.medscape.com/article/121865-overview medscape hyperthyroidism

http://www.emedicinehealth.com/hyperthyroidism/article_em.htm emedicine health hyperthyroidism

http://emedicine.medscape.com/article/921707-overview medscape pediatric hyperthyroidism

https://www.merckmanuals.com/professional/endocrine-and-metabolic-disorders/thyroid-disorders/hyperthyroidismmerck manuals(professional version) hyperthyroidism

http://www.medicalnewstoday.com/articles/9153.php medical news today what is an overactive thyroid? What is hyperthyroidism?

http://patient.info/health/overactive-thyroid-gland-hyperthyroidism patient overactive thyroid gland (hyperthyroidism)

https://www.britannica.com/science/hyperthyroidism britannica hyperthyroidism

http://www.clevelandclinicmeded.com/medicalpubs/diseasemanagement/endocrinology/hypothyroidism-and-hyperthyroidism/ cleveland clinic hypothyroidism and hyperthyroidism

http://www.uptodate.com/contents/hyperthyroidism-overactive-thyroid-beyond-the-basics upto date patient information: hyperthyroidism (overactive thyroid) (beyond the basics)

http://www.physio-pedia.com/hyperthyroidism physio pedia hyperthyroidism



http://rcm.mums.ac.ir/pdf_4345_1178a98ddd6542482ba145d510477ea0.html boroumand rezazadeh m. The adverse effects of hypothyroidism and hyperthyroidism during pregnancy. Rev clin med. 2015;2(3):147-150.

http://www.hindawi.com/journals/crie/2016/2087525/ umal azmat, david liebner, amy joehlin-price, amit agrawal, and fadi nabhan, “treatment of ipilimumab induced graves’ disease in a patient with metastatic melanoma,” case reports in endocrinology, vol. 2016, article id 2087525, 4 pages, 2016. Doi:10.1155/2016/2087525

http://www.hindawi.com/journals/crie/2015/940241/ regina belokovskaya and alice c. Levine, “recurrent episodes of thyrotoxicosis in a man following pregnancies of his spouse with hashimoto’s thyroiditis,” case reports in endocrinology, vol. 2015, article id 940241, 4 pages, 2015. Doi:10.1155/2015/940241

Sarkar d. Recurrent pregnancy loss in patients with thyroid dysfunction. Indian j endocr metab [serial online] 2012 [cited 2016 jul 14];16, suppl s2:350-1. Available from: http://www.ijem.in/text.asp?2012/16/8/350/104088

Kumar a, shekhar s, dhole b. Thyroid and male reproduction. Indian j endocr metab [serial online] 2014 [cited 2016 jul 14];18:23-31. Available from: http://www.ijem.in/text.asp?2014/18/1/23/126523

http://thyroidresearchjournal.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/1756-6614-5-16 the thyroid gland and the process of aging; what is new? By adam gesing et al., thyroid research20125:16 doi: 10.1186/1756-6614-5-16

http://www.hindawi.com/journals/crim/2014/231651/ umang barvalia, barkha amlani, and ram pathak, “amiodarone-induced thyrotoxic thyroiditis: a diagnostic and therapeutic challenge,” case reports in medicine, vol. 2014, article id 231651, 6 pages, 2014. Doi:10.1155/2014/231651

http://www.hindawi.com/journals/crim/2016/9653412/ peter v. Bui, sonia n. Zaveri, and j. Rush pierce jr., “sanguineous pericardial effusion and cardiac tamponade in the setting of graves’ disease: report of a case and review of previously reported cases,” case reports in medicine, vol. 2016, article id 9653412, 6 pages, 2016. Doi:10.1155/2016/9653412

Unnikrishnan ag, menon uv. Thyroid disorders in india: an epidemiological perspective. Indian j endocr metab [serial online] 2011 [cited 2016 jul 14];15, suppl s2:78-81. Available from: http://www.ijem.in/text.asp?2011/15/6/78/83329

http://www.hindawi.com/journals/jtr/2012/736161/ leonidas h. Duntas, “the evolving role of selenium in the treatment of graves' disease and ophthalmopathy,” journal of thyroid research, vol. 2012, article id 736161, 6 pages, 2012. Doi:10.1155/2012/736161

http://annals-general-psychiatry.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/1744-859x-7-3 recognizing thyrotoxicosis in a patient with bipolar mania: a case report by catherine see-ning lee and burton hutto et al.,annals of general psychiatry20087:3 doi: 10.1186/1744-859x-7-3

Dhanwal dk. Thyroid disorders and bone mineral metabolism. Indian j endocr metab [serial online] 2011 [cited 2016 jul 14];15, suppl s2:107-12. Available from: http://www.ijem.in/text.asp?2011/15/6/107/83339

http://thyroidresearchjournal.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/1756-6614-6-3 spectrum of lithium induced thyroid abnormalities: a current perspective by davis kibirige et al., thyroid research20136:3 doi: 10.1186/1756-6614-6-3

http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ije/2013/638727/ jagoda gorka, regina m. Taylor-gjevre, and terra arnason, “metabolic and clinical consequences of hyperthyroidism on bone density,” international journal of endocrinology, vol. 2013, article id 638727, 11 pages, 2013. Doi:10.1155/2013/638727


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http://www.catvets.com/guidelines/practice-guidelines/feline-hyperthyroidism cat vets 2016 aafp guidelines for the management of feline hyperthyroidism

http://www.merckvetmanual.com/mvm/endocrine_system/the_thyroid_gland/hyperthyroidism.html merck vet manual hyperthyroidism


Other helpful resources(support groups):

http://www.btf-thyroid.org/information/quick-guides/104-hyperthyroidism british thyroid association hyperthyroidism


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https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=bahjg_vvdj0 hyperthyroidism (the easy way - in under 4 mins)

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