Hyperthyroidism is the condition that occurs due to excessive production of thyroid hormone by the thyroid gland. Thyrotoxicosis is the condition that occurs due to excessive thyroid hormone of any cause and therefore includes hyperthyroidism. Some, however, use the terms interchangeably. Signs and symptoms vary between people and may include irritability, muscle weakness, sleeping problems, a fast heartbeat, poor tolerance of heat, diarrhea, enlargement of the thyroid, and weight loss. Symptoms are typically less in the old and during pregnancy. An uncommon complication is thyroid storm in which an event such as an infection results in worsening symptoms such as confusion and a high temperature and often results in death. The opposite is hypothyroidism, when the thyroid gland does not make enough thyroid hormone.
Graves' disease is the cause of about 50% to 80% of case of hyperthyroidism in the United States. Other causes include multinodular goiter, toxic adenoma, inflammation of the thyroid, eating too much iodine, and too much synthetic thyroid hormone. A less common cause is a pituitary adenoma. The diagnosis may be suspected based on signs and symptoms and then confirmed with blood tests. Typically blood tests show a low thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) and raised T3 or T4. Radioiodine uptake by the thyroid, thyroid scan, and TSI antibodies may help determine the cause.
Treatment depends partly on the cause and severity of disease. There are three main treatment options: radioiodine therapy, medications, and thyroid surgery. Radioiodine therapy involves taking iodine-131 by mouth which is then concentrated in and destroys the thyroid over weeks to months. The resulting hypothyroidism is treated with synthetic thyroid hormone. Medications such as beta blockers may control the symptoms and anti-thyroid medications such as methimazole may temporarily help people while other treatments are having effect. Surgery to remove the thyroid is another option. This may be used in those with very large thyroids or when cancer is a concern. In the United States hyperthyroidism affects about 1.2% of the population. It occurs between two and ten times more often in women. Onset is commonly between 20 and 50 years of age. Overall the disease is more common in those over the age of 60 years.
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http://www.hindawi.com/journals/crie/2015/940241/ regina belokovskaya and alice c. Levine, “recurrent episodes of thyrotoxicosis in a man following pregnancies of his spouse with hashimoto’s thyroiditis,” case reports in endocrinology, vol. 2015, article id 940241, 4 pages, 2015. Doi:10.1155/2015/940241
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http://www.hindawi.com/journals/jtr/2012/736161/ leonidas h. Duntas, “the evolving role of selenium in the treatment of graves' disease and ophthalmopathy,” journal of thyroid research, vol. 2012, article id 736161, 6 pages, 2012. Doi:10.1155/2012/736161
http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ije/2013/638727/ jagoda gorka, regina m. Taylor-gjevre, and terra arnason, “metabolic and clinical consequences of hyperthyroidism on bone density,” international journal of endocrinology, vol. 2013, article id 638727, 11 pages, 2013. Doi:10.1155/2013/638727