Last Reviewed : 12/24/2020

Hypertension (HTN or HT), also known as high blood pressure (HBP), is a long term medical condition in which the blood pressure in the arteries is persistently elevated. High blood pressure usually does not cause symptoms. Long term high blood pressure, however, is a major risk factor for coronary artery disease, stroke, heart failure, peripheral vascular disease, vision loss, and chronic kidney disease.

High blood pressure is classified as either primary (essential) high blood pressure or secondary high blood pressure. About 90–95% of cases are primary, defined as high blood pressure due to nonspecific lifestyle and genetic factors. Lifestyle factors that increase the risk include excess salt, excess body weight, smoking, and alcohol. The remaining 5–10% of cases are categorized as secondary high blood pressure, defined as high blood pressure due to an identifiable cause, such as chronic kidney disease, narrowing of the kidney arteries, an endocrine disorder, or the use of birth control pills.

Blood pressure is expressed by two measurements, the systolic and diastolic pressures, which are the maximum and minimum pressures, respectively. Normal blood pressure at rest is within the range of 100–140 millimeters mercury (mmHg) systolic and 60–90 mmHg diastolic. High blood pressure is present if the resting blood pressure is persistently at or above 140/90 mmHg for most adults.[5] Different numbers apply to children. Ambulatory blood pressure monitoring over a 24-hour period appears more accurate than office best blood pressure measurement.

Lifestyle changes and medications can lower blood pressure and decrease the risk of health complications. Lifestyle changes include weight loss, decreased salt intake, physical exercise, and a healthy diet. If lifestyle changes are not sufficient blood pressure medications are used. Up to three medications controls blood pressure in 90% of people. The treatment of moderately high arterial blood pressure (defined as >160/100 mmHg) with medications is associated with an improved life expectancy. The effect of treatment of blood pressure between 140/90 mmHg and 160/100 mmHg is less clear, with some reviews finding benefit and others not finding benefit. High blood pressure affects between 16 and 37% of the population globally. In 2010 hypertension was believed to have been a factor in 18% (9.4 million) deaths.


We researched this topic for you and found the following best online resources. They are categorized into basic, advanced, and research level based on the extent of information you need. You will be taken to the respective websites by pressing on the links below.


Basic information:

http://www.medicalnewstoday.com/articles/150109.php medical news today hypertension: causes, symptoms and treatments

http://www.mayoclinic.org/diseases-conditions/high-blood-pressure/basics/definition/con-20019580 mayoclinic definition

http://www.webmd.com/hypertension-high- blood-pressure/ web md hypertension overview

http://www.nhs.uk/conditions/blood-pressure-(high)/pages/introduction.aspx nhs uk high blood pressure (hypertension)

http://www.msdmanuals.com/professional/cardiovascular-disorders/hypertension/overview-of-hypertension msd manuals(professional version) overview of hypertension

http://www.nytimes.com/health/guides/disease/hypertension/overview.html newyork times high blood pressure

http://www.healthline.com/health/high-blood-pressure-hypertension-symptoms health line high blood pressure symptoms

https://www.betterhealth.vic.gov.au/health/conditionsandtreatments/blood-pressure-high-hypertension better health blood pressure (high) - hypertension

http://www.healthdirect.gov.au/high-blood-pressure-hypertension health direct hypertension

http://www.healthcommunities.com/high-blood-pressure/overview-of-hypertension.shtml healthy communities high blood pressure

http://www.everydayhealth.com/high-blood-pressure/guide/ every day health what is high blood pressure?

http://familydoctor.org/familydoctor/en/diseases-conditions/pregnancy-induced-hypertension.html family doctor organisation pregnancy-induced hypertension

http://www.livescience.com/34753-hypertension-high-blood-pressure.html live science hypertension: symptoms and treatment

https://www.southerncross.co.nz/group/medical-library/high-blood-pressure-hypertension southern cross medical library high blood pressure – hypertension

http://www.emedicinehealth.com/high_blood_pressure/article_em.htm emedicine health high blood pressure


Advanced information:

http://emedicine.medscape.com/article/241381-overview medscape hypertension

http://www.clevelandclinicmeded.com/medicalpubs/diseasemanagement/nephrology/arterial-hypertension/ clevland clinic med hypertension by mohammed a. Rafey

http://patient.info/doctor/hypertension patient hypertension

http://americanpregnancy.org/pregnancy-complications/pregnancy-induced-hypertension/ ameican pregnancy organisation gestational hypertension: pregnancy induced hypertension (pih)

http://millionhearts.hhs.gov/docs/hypertension-protocol.pdf million hearts protocol for controlling hypertension in adults

http://www.acog.org/resources-and-publications/task-force-and-work-group-reports/hypertension-in-pregnancy the american congress of obstetricians and gynecologists hypertension in pregnancy

http://www.fpnotebook.com/cv/htn/hyprtnsn.htm family practice note book hypertension

http://www.cvphysiology.com/blood%20pressure/bp001.htm cardio vascular physiology concepts hypertension – introduction

http://www.aao.org/eye-health/diseases/what-is-ocular-hypertension american association of ophthalmology what is ocular hypertension?

https://www.unm.edu/~lkravitz/article%20folder/hypertension.html hyptertension and exercise
gavin c. Hillman and len kravitz, ph.d.

http://dashdiet.org/hypertension.asp the dash siet eating plan hypertension and prehypertension

https://www.merckmanuals.com/professional/cardiovascular-disorders/hypertension/hypertensive-emergencies merck manuals professional version hypertensive emergencies

http://www.aoa.org/patients-and-public/eye-and-vision-problems/glossary-of-eye-and-vision-conditions/ocular-hypertension?sso=y american optometric association ocular hypertension

http://csc.cma.org.cn/attachment/2014315/1394885445745.pdf clinical practice guidelines for the management of hypertension in the community a statement by the american society of hypertension and the international society of hypertension by michael a. Weber, md et al., the journal of clinical hypertension doi: 10.1111/jch.12237

http://ct1.medstarhealth.org/content/uploads/sites/43/2016/05/management-of-hypertension-in-adults-age-18-years-and-older-2016.pdf management of hypertension in adults age 18 years and older clinical practice guideline medstar health



http://www.hindawi.com/journals/bmri/2014/743868/ biomed research international
volume 2014 (2014), article id 743868, 17 pages http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2014/743868 review article:pulmonary arterial hypertension in adults: novel drugs and catheter ablation techniques show promise? Systematic review on pharmacotherapy and interventional strategies by salvatore rosanio et al.,

http://err.ersjournals.com/content/25/140/135.full epigenetic mechanisms in pulmonary arterial hypertension: the need for global perspectives by prakash chelladurai, werner seeger, soni savai pullamsetti doi: 10.1183/16000617.0036-2016

Kulkarni rr, ramdurg si, bairy bk. Disulfiram-induced reversible hypertension: a prospective case series and review of the literature. Indian j psychol med [serial online] 2014 [cited 2016 jun 14];36:434-8. Available from: http://www.ijpm.info/text.asp?2014/36/4/434/140744

http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=s1677-54492013000200133&lng=en&tlng=en j. Vasc. Bras. Vol.12 no.2 porto alegre june 2013 http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/s1677-54492013000200008 review article:initial approach to hypertension in the hemodynamics unit: review article by gustavo teixeira fulton schimit et al.,

http://www.mdpi.com/2079-9721/2/2/120/htm the role of exercise testing in the modern management of pulmonary arterial hypertension by martin k. Johnson and stephen thomson diseases 2014, 2(2), 120-147; doi:10.3390/diseases2020120

http://www.hindawi.com/journals/jobe/2012/505274/ journal of obesity
volume 2012 (2012), article id 505274, 9 pages http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2012/505274 review article:obesity and pulmonary hypertension: a review of pathophysiologic mechanisms by scott e. Friedman and bruce w. Andrus


Related articles:

https://www.thesequitur.com/natural-remedies-for-high-blood-pressure-reduce-hypertension-1131285/ natural remedies for high blood pressure – reduce hypertension


Other articles:

http://www.vet.cornell.edu/fhc/health_information/hypertension.cfm cornell university college of veterinary medicine feline hypertension

http://icatcare.org/advice/cat-health/hypertension-high-blood-pressure-cats international cat care hypertension (high blood pressure) in cats


Other helpful resources(support groups):

http://ish-world.com/index.htm international society for hypertension

http://ihrfoundation.org/ intra cranial hypertension research foundation


Related videos:

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=su2ej-8puqk hypertension

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ttknnp7bw8y explanation of hypertension

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=xnyfelxkbli hypertension

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=omkvteeuqj0 hypertension explained clearly

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ywqcpu7d3dk 109 the pathophysiology of hypertension

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=fboyigdnlkq what is hypertension?

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=swe8fuk-m88 hypertension - the silent killer


Presentations/quiz/newspaper articles:

http://timesofindia.indiatimes.com/life-style/health-fitness/health-news/all-you-need-to-know-about-hypertension/articleshow/35617449.cms all you need to know about hypertension tnn | may 10, 2016, 10.43 am ist

http://www.thehindu.com/sci-tech/health/national-family-health-survey-rural-india-too-battles-hypertension/article8136851.ece rural india too battles hypertension

http://indianexpress.com/article/lifestyle/health/adequate-sleep-cuts-major-health-risks-in-children-teenagers-2855987/adequate sleep cuts major health risks in children, teenagers

Please leave your comments:

Related Articles