Last Reviewed : 12/24/2020

Hyperprolactinaemia or hyperprolactinemia is the presence of abnormally high levels of prolactin in the blood. Normal levels are less than 500 mIU/L [20 ng/mL or µg/L] for women, and less than 450 mIU/L for men.

Prolactin is a peptide hormone produced by the anterior pituitary gland that is primarily associated with lactation and plays a vital role in breast development during pregnancy. Hyperprolactinaemia may cause galactorrhea (production and spontaneous flow of breast milk) and disruptions in the normal menstrual period in women and hypogonadism, infertility and erectile dysfunction in men.

Hyperprolactinaemia can be a part of normal body changes during pregnancy and breastfeeding. It can also be caused by diseases affecting the hypothalamus and pituitary gland. It can also be caused by disruption of the normal regulation of prolactin levels by drugs, medicinal herbs and heavy metals. Hyperprolactinaemia may also be the result of disease of other organs such as the liver, kidneys, ovaries and thyroid.


We researched this topic for you and found the following best online resources. They are categorized into basic, advanced, and research level based on the extent of information you need. You will be taken to the respective websites by pressing on the links below.


Basic information:

http://www.hormone.org/patient-guides/2011/hyperprolactinemia hormone.org hyperprolactinemia

http://www.hopkinsmedicine.org/neurology_neurosurgery/centers_clinics/pituitary_center/conditions/hyperprolactinemia.htmljohn hopkins medicine hyperprolactinemia

http://www.healthcommunities.com/blood-disorders/what-is-hyperprolactinemia.shtml health communities hyperprolactinemia

http://www.everydayhealth.com/prolactin/guide/ everyday health hyperprolactinemia

http://www.mayoclinic.org/diseases-conditions/prolactinoma/basics/symptoms/con-20028094 mayo clinic hyperprolactinemia

https://www.verywell.com/what-is-hyperprolactinemia-2616556 very well hyperprolactinemia


Advanced information:

http://emedicine.medscape.com/article/121784-overview medscape hyperprolactinemia

http://www.fpnotebook.com/endo/pituitary/hyprprlctnmcs.htm family practise note book hyperprolactinemia

http://www.aafp.org/afp/2012/0601/p1073.html hyperprolactinemia

https://online.epocrates.com/diseases/53821/evaluation-of-hyperprolactinemia/diagnostic-approach epocrates evaluation of hyperprolactinemia

http://patient.info/in/doctor/hyperprolactinaemia-and-prolactinoma patient hyperprolactinemia

http://www.news-medical.net/news/2004/07/21/3462.aspx news medical stress found to be associated with hyperprolactinemia



Kota sk, meher lk, krishna s, modi k d. Tuberous sclerosis: an uncommon cause of hyperprolactinemia. Indian j endocr metab [serial online] 2012 [cited 2017 jan 1];16, suppl s2:302-3. Available from: http://www.ijem.in/text.asp?2012/16/8/302/104068

http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=s0004-282x1998000200020 arq. Neuro-psiquiatr. Vol.56 n.2 são paulo june 1998 http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/s0004-282x1998000200020 hyperprolactinemia associated to calcification of the pituitary stalk case report by miriam da costa oliveira et al.,

https://www.hindawi.com/journals/ije/2014/919704/ cheng huan, chao lu, guang-ming xu, xin qu, and yuan-ming qu, “retrospective analysis of cushing’s disease with or without hyperprolactinemia,” international journal of endocrinology, vol. 2014, article id 919704, 8 pages, 2014. Doi:10.1155/2014/919704

Wiwanitkit v. Hyperprolactinemia with normal serum prolactin: "hook effect" a concern in laboratory medicine aspect. J hum reprod sci [serial online] 2010 [cited 2017 jan 1];3:160. Available from: http://www.jhrsonline.org/text.asp?2010/3/3/160/74163

Agarwal m, das a, singh sa. Hyperprolactinemia with normal serum prolactin: its clinical significance. J hum reprod sci [serial online] 2010 [cited 2017 jan 1];3:111-2. Available from: http://www.jhrsonline.org/text.asp?2010/3/2/111/69334

Rajput r, sehgal a, gahlan d. Reversible thyrotroph hyperplasia with hyperprolactinemia: a rare presenting manifestation of primary hypothyroidism. Indian j endocr metab [serial online] 2012 [cited 2017 jan 1];16:1037-9. Available from: http://www.ijem.in/text.asp?2012/16/6/1037/103036

https://www.hindawi.com/journals/crirh/2016/7367232/ hussein halabi and israa mulla, “rheumatoid arthritis, kartagener’s syndrome, and hyperprolactinemia: who started it?,” case reports in rheumatology, vol. 2016, article id 7367232, 5 pages, 2016. Doi:10.1155/2016/7367232

Praharaj sk. Hyperprolactinemia and breast enlargement with serotonin reuptake inhibitor and olanzapine combination. Indian j pharmacol [serial online] 2011 [cited 2017 jan 1];43:739-40. Available from: http://www.ijp-online.com/text.asp?2011/43/6/739/89843

http://rbej.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/1477-7827-3-31 hyperprolactinemia after laparoscopic ovarian drilling: an unknown phenomenon by mohammad e parsanezhad et al., reproductive biology and endocrinology20053:31 doi: 10.1186/1477-7827-3-31

http://europepmc.org/backend/ptpmcrender.fcgi?accid=pmc3731351&blobtype=pdf : li x, tang y, wang c (2013) adjunctive aripiprazole versus placebo for antipsychotic-induced hyperprolactinemia: meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. Plos one 8(8): e70179. Doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0070179

http://jmedicalcasereports.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/1752-1947-2-234 paget's disease of the skull causing hyperprolactinemia and erectile dysfunction: a case report by rachel hepherd and paul e jennings journal of medical case reports20082:234 doi: 10.1186/1752-1947-2-234

https://www.hindawi.com/journals/au/2011/686924/ erik johnsen, rune kroken, else-marie løberg, eirik kjelby, and hugo a. Jørgensen, “sexual dysfunction and hyperprolactinemia in male psychotic inpatients: a cross-sectional study,” advances in urology, vol. 2011, article id 686924, 6 pages, 2011. Doi:10.1155/2011/686924

http://molecular-cancer.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/1476-4598-7-13 insulin-like growth factor-i gene therapy reverses morphologic changes and reduces hyperprolactinemia in experimental rat prolactinomas by gloria m console et al., molecular cancer20087:13 doi: 10.1186/1476-4598-7-13


Related topics:

http://natural-fertility-info.com/hyperprolactinemia.html natural fertility info


Other helpful resources(support groups):

https://www.asrm.org/factsheet_hyperprolactinemia_prolactin_excess/ american society for reproductive medicine


Related videos:

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https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=saao72ti4h4 antipsychotic-induced hyperprolactinemia

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