Hyperparathyroidism is characterized by hyperactivity of one or more parathyroid glands, disordered calcium homeostasis, and a consequent increase in serum calcium and elevated or inappropriately present circulating levels of parathyroid hormone (PTH). The extra parathyroid hormone causes bones to dissolve and raises the blood calcium level causing hypercalcemia which produces symptoms like weakness and fatigue, depression, bone pain, muscle soreness (myalgias), decreased appetite, feelings of nausea and vomiting, constipation, polyuria, polydipsia, cognitive impairment, kidney stones and osteoporosis. In the United States, about 100,000 people develop a parathyroid disorder each year. Women hyperthyroid patients outnumber men by a ratio of 2-to-1, and risk increases with age. In women age 60 or older, 2 out of 1,000 will develop hyperparathyroidism each year.
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