hypercalcemia
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Hypercalcemia

Hypercalcemia

Last Reviewed : 12/24/2020
Hypercalcemia

Hypercalcaemia, also spelled hypercalcemia, is a high calcium (Ca2+) level in the blood serum. The normal range is 2.1–2.6 mmol/L (8.8–10.7 mg/dL, 4.3–5.2 mEq/L) with levels greater than 2.6 mmol/L defined as hypercalcemia. Those with a mild increase that has developed slowly typically have no symptoms. In those with greater levels or rapid onset, symptoms may include abdominal pain, bone pain, confusion, depression, weakness, kidney stones, or an abnormal heart rhythm including cardiac arrest.

Most cases are due to primary hyperparathyroidism or cancer. Other causes include sarcoidosis, tuberculosis, Paget disease, multiple endocrine neoplasia (MEN), vitamin D toxicity, familial hypocalciuric hypercalcaemia, and certainmedications such as lithium and hydrochlorothiazide. Diagnosis should generally include either a corrected calcium orionized calcium level and be confirmed after a week. Specific changes may be seen on an electrocardiogram (ECG).

Treatment may include intravenous fluids, furosemide, calcitonin, or pamidronate in addition to treating the underlying cause. The evidence for furosemide; however, is poor. In those with very high levels hospitalization may be required.Hemodialysis may be used in those who do not respond to other treatments. In those with vitamin D toxicity steroids may be useful. Hypercalcemia is relatively common. Primary hyperparathyroidism occurs in between one and seven per thousand people and hypercalcemia occurs in about 2.7% of those with cancer.

 

We researched this topic for you and found the following best online resources. They are categorized into basic, advanced, and research level based on the extent of information you need. You will be taken to the respective websites by pressing on the links below.

 

Basic information:

http://www.mayoclinic.org/diseases-conditions/hypercalcemia/basics/definition/con-20031513 mayo clinic hypercalcemia

https://medlineplus.gov/ency/article/000365.htm medline plus hypercalcemia

http://www.healthline.com/health/hypercalcemia health line hypercalcemia

http://www.merckmanuals.com/professional/endocrine-and-metabolic-disorders/electrolyte-disorders/hypercalcemiamerck manuals (professional version) hypercalcemia

http://chemocare.com/chemotherapy/side-effects/hypercalcemia-high-calcium.aspx chemo care hypercalcemia

https://my.clevelandclinic.org/health/diseases_conditions/hic-hypercalcemia cleveland clinic hypercalcemia

http://umm.edu/health/medical/ency/articles/hypercalcemia university of maryland medical center hypercalcemia

http://www.nytimes.com/health/guides/disease/hypercalcemia/overview.html newyork times hypercalcemia

http://www.healthcentral.com/encyclopedia/hc/hypercalcemia-3168845/ health central hypercalcemia

 

Advanced information:

http://emedicine.medscape.com/article/240681-overview medscape hypercalcemia

http://www.medicinenet.com/hypercalcemia/article.htm medicine net hypercalcemia (elevated calcium levels)

http://www.clevelandclinicmeded.com/medicalpubs/diseasemanagement/endocrinology/hypercalcemia/ cleveland clinic hypercalcemia

http://www.uptodate.com/contents/treatment-of-hypercalcemia upto date treatment of hypercalcemia

http://www.aafp.org/afp/2003/0501/p1959.html a practical approach to hypercalcemia by mary f. Carroll, m.d.,et al.,am fam physician. 2003 may 1;67(9):1959-1966.

http://lifeinthefastlane.com/ecg-library/basics/hypercalcaemia/ life in the fast lane hypercalcemia

http://www.parathyroid.com/hypercalcemia.htm parathyroid.com hypercalcemia: the definition and causes of hypercalcemia

http://www.emedicinehealth.com/hypercalcemia_elevated_calcium_levels/article_em.htm emedicine health hypercalcemia(elevated calcium levels)

http://www.fpnotebook.com/renal/calcium/hyprclcm.htm family practise note book hypercalcemia

http://patient.info/in/doctor/hypercalcaemia patient hypercalcemia

http://www.physio-pedia.com/hypercalcemia physiopedia hypercalcemia

 

Research:

https://www.hindawi.com/journals/crie/2014/893134/ jelena maletkovic, jennifer p. Isorena, miguel fernando palma diaz, stanley g. Korenman, and michael w. Yeh, “multifactorial hypercalcemia and literature review on primary hyperparathyroidism associated with lymphoma,” case reports in endocrinology, vol. 2014, article id 893134, 4 pages, 2014. Doi:10.1155/2014/893134

https://www.hindawi.com/journals/crihem/2014/619760/ sakshi kapur and miles b. Levin, “transformation of follicular lymphoma to double hit b-cell lymphoma causing hypercalcemia in a 69-year-old female: a case report and review of the literature,” case reports in hematology, vol. 2014, article id 619760, 8 pages, 2014. Doi:10.1155/2014/619760

https://www.hindawi.com/journals/crihem/2014/619760/ sakshi kapur and miles b. Levin, “transformation of follicular lymphoma to double hit b-cell lymphoma causing hypercalcemia in a 69-year-old female: a case report and review of the literature,” case reports in hematology, vol. 2014, article id 619760, 8 pages, 2014. Doi:10.1155/2014/619760

https://www.hindawi.com/journals/crim/2014/473814/ ankur mishra and david newman, “an interesting case of life-threatening hypercalcemia secondary to atypical parathyroid adenoma versus parathyroid carcinoma,” case reports in medicine, vol. 2014, article id 473814, 4 pages, 2014. Doi:10.1155/2014/473814

https://www.hindawi.com/journals/crim/2012/851941/ areej khan, yusra khan, shahzad raza, et al., “functional parathyroid cyst: a rare cause of malignant hypercalcemia with primary hyperparathyroidism—a case report and review of the literature,” case reports in medicine, vol. 2012, article id 851941, 5 pages, 2012. Doi:10.1155/2012/851941

https://www.hindawi.com/journals/crie/2011/520516/ s. Malekar-raikar and b. P. Sinnott, “primary hyperparathyroidism in pregnancy—a rare cause of life-threatening hypercalcemia: case report and literature review,” case reports in endocrinology, vol. 2011, article id 520516, 6 pages, 2011. Doi:10.1155/2011/520516

https://www.hindawi.com/journals/crihem/2014/619760/ sakshi kapur and miles b. Levin, “transformation of follicular lymphoma to double hit b-cell lymphoma causing hypercalcemia in a 69-year-old female: a case report and review of the literature,” case reports in hematology, vol. 2014, article id 619760, 8 pages, 2014. Doi:10.1155/2014/619760

https://www.hindawi.com/journals/crim/2014/473814/ ankur mishra and david newman, “an interesting case of life-threatening hypercalcemia secondary to atypical parathyroid adenoma versus parathyroid carcinoma,” case reports in medicine, vol. 2014, article id 473814, 4 pages, 2014. Doi:10.1155/2014/473814

https://www.hindawi.com/journals/crim/2012/851941/ areej khan, yusra khan, shahzad raza, et al., “functional parathyroid cyst: a rare cause of malignant hypercalcemia with primary hyperparathyroidism—a case report and review of the literature,” case reports in medicine, vol. 2012, article id 851941, 5 pages, 2012. Doi:10.1155/2012/851941

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/pmc2967024/ hypercalcemia in children and adolescents by steven a. Lietman, m.d et al., curr opin pediatr. 2010 aug; 22(4): 508–515. Doi: 10.1097/mop.0b013e32833b7c23

 

Other articles:

http://www.merckvetmanual.com/mvm/endocrine_system/the_parathyroid_glands_and_disorders_of_calcium_metabolism/hypercalcemia_in_horses.htmlthe merck veterinary manuals hypercalcemia in horses

http://www.petmd.com/dog/conditions/endocrine/c_multi_hypercalcemia pet md excess calcium in the blood in dogs

http://www.vin.com/vindbpub/searchpb/proceedings/pr05000/pr00156.htm hypercalcemia in dogs: approach to diagnosis and treatment by dennis chew united states

http://veterinarymedicine.dvm360.com/treating-paraneoplastic-hypercalcemia-dogs-and-cats dvm 360 treating paraneoplastic hypercalcemia in dogs and cats

http://www.vcahospitals.com/main/pet-health-information/article/animal-health/hypercalcemia/353 vca animal hospitals hypercalcemia

http://www.cliniciansbrief.com/columns/42/hypercalcemia-dogs-and-cats clinicians brief hypercalcemia in dogs and cats

 

Related videos:

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=qaewkcxdniw hypercalcemia

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=lidavjwwifo hypercalcemia

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ixkwpeiinb4 hypercalcemia - high calcium

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=o3vnoyseohy pathophysiology of hypercalcemia

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=-bo-ak4z670 fluid & electrolytes nursing students hypercalcemia made easy nclex review

 

Presentations/quiz/newspaper articles:

http://www.huffingtonpost.in/entry/emma-houlston-fundraising-cancer-treatment-instead-of-wedding-gifts_uk_57fe0b48e4b08e08b93d3a9e huffington post bride-to-be with ovarian cancer asks for donations for treatment instead of traditional wedding gifts

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