hydrocephalus
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Hydrocephalus

Hydrocephalus

Last Reviewed : 12/24/2020
Hydrocephalus

Hydrocephalus (from Greek hydro-, meaning "water", and kephalos, meaning "head") is a medical condition in which there is an abnormal accumulation of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) in the brain. This causes increased intracranial pressure inside the skull and may cause progressive enlargement of the head if it occurs in childhood, potentially causing convulsion, tunnel vision, and mental disability. It was once informally called "Water on the brain."

Hydrocephalus can be caused by congenital or acquired factors. Congenital causes include Spina Bifida, Arnold–Chiari malformation, craniosynostosis, Dandy–Walker syndrome, and Vein of Galen malformations. Acquired causes include hemorrhage, meningitis, head trauma, tumors, and cysts.

Two types of hydrocephalus are commonly described non-communicating hydrocephalus and communicating hydrocephalus, although there is evidence that communicating forms can lead to obstruction of CSF flow in many instances.

In non-communicating hydrocephalus, the CSF in the ventricles can't reach the subarachnoid space. This results from obstruction ofinterventricular foramina, cerebral aqueduct, or the outflow foramina of the fourth ventricle (median and lateral apertures). The most common obstruction is in the cerebral aqueduct. A block at any of these sites leads rapidly to dilatation of one or more ventricles. If the skull is still pliable, as it is in children younger than two years, the head may enlarge.

In communicating hydrocephalus, the obstruction of CSF flow is in the subarachnoid space from prior bleeding or meningitis. This causes thickening of the arachnoid leading to blockage of the return-flow channels. In some patients, the spaces filled by CSF are uniformly enlarged without an increase in intracranial pressure. This special form of communicating hydrocephalus is called normal pressure hydrocephalus (NPH), which results specifically from impaired CSF reabsorption at the arachnoid granulations. NPH's clinical manifestations are gait abnormality, dementia, and involuntary urination. NPH usually occurs in elderly patients.

 

We researched this topic for you and found the following best online resources. They are categorized into basic, advanced, and research level based on the extent of information you need. You will be taken to the respective websites by pressing on the links below.

 

Basic information:

http://www.healthline.com/health/hydrocephalus hydrocephalus

https://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/hydrocephalus.html hydrocephalus

http://www.nhs.uk/conditions/hydrocephalus/pages/introduction.aspx hydrocephalus

http://kidshealth.org/en/parents/hydrocephalus.html hydrocephalus

http://www.mayoclinic.org/diseases-conditions/hydrocephalus/basics/definition/con-20030706 hydrocephalus

http://www.webmd.com/brain/normal-pressure-hydrocephalus hydrocephalus

http://www.aans.org/patient%20information/conditions%20and%20treatments/hydrocephalus.aspx american association of neurological surgeons hydrocephalus

http://www.shinecharity.org.uk/hydrocephalus shine charity hydrocephalus

http://www.alz.org/dementia/normal-pressure-hydrocephalus-nph.asp alzhemiers association hydrocephalus

https://www.betterhealth.vic.gov.au/health/conditionsandtreatments/hydrocephalus hydrocephalus

http://www.medtronic.com/patients/hydrocephalus/index.htm medtronic hydrocephalus

http://brainfoundation.org.au/disorders/hydrocephalus hydrocephalus

https://my.clevelandclinic.org/childrens-hospital/health-info/diseases-conditions/hic-hydrocephalus hydrocephalus

http://neurosurgery.ucla.edu/hydrocephalus ucla health hydrocephalus

http://www.stanfordchildrens.org/en/topic/default?id=hydrocephalus-90-p02367 hydrocephalus

http://www.news-medical.net/health/what-is-hydrocephalus.aspx hydrocephalus

http://umm.edu/health/medical/ency/articles/hydrocephalus hydrocephalus

http://www.msdmanuals.com/professional/pediatrics/congenital-neurologic-anomalies/hydrocephalus hydrocephalus

http://www.nytimes.com/health/guides/disease/hydrocephalus/overview.html hydrocephalus

https://www.uihealthcare.org/adam/?/hie%20multimedia/1/001571 university of lowa and health clinics hydrocephalus

 

Advanced information:

http://www.ninds.nih.gov/disorders/hydrocephalus/detail_hydrocephalus.htm national institute of neurological disorders and stroke hydrocephalus

http://emedicine.medscape.com/article/1135286-overview hydrocephalus

http://www.medicinenet.com/hydrocephalus/article.htm hydrocephalus

http://nhfonline.org/hydrocephalus-defined.htm national hydrocephalus foundation hydrocephalus

http://patient.info/doctor/hydrocephalus-pro hydrocephalus

http://radiopaedia.org/articles/obstructive-hydrocephalus hydrocephalus

http://www.chop.edu/conditions-diseases/hydrocephalus#.vzfk-4r97iu childrens hospital of philadelphia hydrocephalus

http://www.medicalnewstoday.com/articles/181727.php hydrocephalus

http://www.sbhao.on.ca/hydrocephalus spirit break through and hope hydrocephalus

http://fetalhydrocephalus.com/hydro/info-congenital-hydrocephalus.aspx fetal hydrocephalus

http://www.columbianeurosurgery.org/conditions/adult-hydrocephalus/ hydrocephalus

http://www.britannica.com/science/hydrocephalus hydrocephalus

http://www.independentliving.org/docs7/miles200609.html independant living institute children with spina bifida and hydrocephalus in africa: can medical, family and community resources improve the life chances? Miles, m. 2006.

http://www.unilim.fr/campus-neurochirurgie/img/pdf/part%202diagnostic%20of%20nph.pdf inph guidelines, part ii diagnosing idiopathic normal-pressure hydrocephalus by norman relkin, m.d., ph.d et al., s2-4 | volume 57 | number 3 | september 2005 supplement

http://www.aerzteblatt.de/pdf/di/109/1/m15.pdf the differential diagnosis and treatment of normal-pressure hydrocephalus by michael kiefer, andreas unterberg deutsches ärzteblatt international | dtsch arztebl int 2012; 109(1–2): 15–26

https://www.axappphealthcare.co.uk/health-information/health-factsheets/hydrocephalus/ axappp healthcare hydrocephalus

 

Research:

http://www.nature.com/articles/srep07775 noninvasive prediction of shunt operation outcome in idiopathic normal pressure hydrocephalus by yasunori aoki et al., scientific reports 5, article number: 7775 (2015) doi:10.1038/srep07775

http://fluidsbarrierscns.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/2045-8118-9-18 pediatric hydrocephalus outcomes: a review by matthieu vinchon,harold rekate and abhaya v kulkarni fluids and barriers of the cns20129:18 doi: 10.1186/2045-8118-9-18

http://fluidsbarrierscns.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/1743-8454-6-1 a review of the current treatment methods for posthaemorrhagic hydrocephalus of infants david shooman,howard portess and owen sparrow cerebrospinal fluid research20096:1 doi: 10.1186/1743-8454-6-1

http://jmedicalcasereports.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/1752-1947-5-366 rare association between cystic fibrosis, chiari i malformation, and hydrocephalus in a baby: a case report and review of the literature akash j patel,viraj h raol and andrew jea journal of medical case reports20115:366 doi: 10.1186/1752-1947-5-366

http://www.sanamed.rs/sanamed_pdf/sanamed_7_2/hydrocephalus.pdf hydrocephalus — history of surgical treatment over the centuries aleksandar j. Milojevi}, branka s. Radoj~i}, igor \. Meljnikov sanamed 2012; 7(2): 119–125 udk: 616.831-005-08(091) issn-1452-662x

Kupeli e, yilmaz c, akcay s. Pleural effusion following ventriculo-pleural shunt: case reports and review of the literature. Ann thorac med [serial online] 2010 [cited 2016 may 10];5:166-70. Available from: http://www.thoracicmedicine.org/text.asp?2010/5/3/166/65048

http://jkimsu.com/jkimsu-vol4no1/jkimsu,%20vol.%204,%20no.%201,%20jan-mar%202015%20page%20161-163.pdf case report : dandy walker syndrome with unusual associated findings in a fetal autopsy study by surekha u arakeri , himanshu mulay jkimsu, vol. 4, no. 1, jan-mar 2015 issn 2231-4261

http://fluidsbarrierscns.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/1743-8454-5-2 the definition and classification of hydrocephalus: a personal recommendation to stimulate debate harold l rekate cerebrospinal fluid research20085:2 doi: 10.1186/1743-8454-5-2

Venkataramana n k. Hydrocephalus indian scenario – a review. J pediatr neurosci [serial online] 2011 [cited 2016 may 10];6, suppl s1:11-22. Available from:http://www.pediatricneurosciences.com/text.asp?2011/6/3/11/85704

Chotai s, medel r, herial na, medhkour a. External lumbar drain: a pragmatic test for prediction of shunt outcomes in idiopathic normal pressure hydrocephalus. Surg neurol int 27-jan-2014;5:12. Available from: http://surgicalneurologyint.com/surgicalint_articl... - see more at: http://surgicalneurologyint.com/surgicalint_articles/external-lumbar-drain-a-pragmatic-test-for-prediction-of-shunt-outcomes-in-idiopathic-normal-pressure-hydrocephalus/#sthash.jovrxyai.dpuf

http://fluidsbarrierscns.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/1743-8454-3-3 review of "pediatric hydrocephalus" by guiseppe cinalli, wirginia maixner, christian sainte-rose (editors) hazel c jones cerebrospinal fluid research20063:3 doi: 10.1186/1743-8454-3-3

http://jmedicalcasereports.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/1752-1947-6-7 aqueductal developmental venous anomaly as an unusual cause of congenital hydrocephalus: a case report and review of the literature david paulson et al., journal of medical case reports20126:7 doi: 10.1186/1752-1947-6-7

 

Other articles:

http://www.petmd.com/dog/conditions/neurological/c_dg_hydrocephalus water in the brain of dogs

http://www.peteducation.com/article.cfm?c=2+2105&aid=448 hydrocephalus in puppies and dogs

 

Other helpful resources(support groups):

http://www.hydroassoc.org/hydrocephalus/ hydrocephalus association

https://cure.org/hydrocephalus/ hydrocephalus

http://hydrocephalus.org.au/what-is-hydrocephalus-1/what-is-hydrocephalus hydrocephalus support association

 

Related videos:

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=-eng4vcvw6u hydrocephalus - definition, treatment and complications

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=6ewtiaoc3sw hydrocephalus

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ydxewpit3fa normal pressure hydrocephalus: nph from diagnosis to treatment

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=yb9dsjdykpi hydrocephalus shunt video - trial image inc. Animation by cal shipley, m.d.

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=bhd8zyimkqa hydrocephalus and its treatment | boston children’s hospital

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ptbg5m7mbe8 hydrocephalus v p shunt+ s

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