Last Reviewed : 12/24/2020

A hydrocele testis is the accumulation of fluids around a testicle. It is often caused by fluid secreted from a remnant piece of peritoneum wrapped around the testicle, called the tunica vaginalis. Provided there is no hernia present, hydroceles below the age of 1 year usually resolve spontaneously. Primary hydroceles may develop in adulthood, particularly in the elderly and in hot countries, by slow accumulation of serous fluid, presumably caused by impaired reabsorption, which appears to be the explanation for most primary hydroceles, although the reason remains obscure.[citation needed] A hydrocele can also be the result of a plugged inguinal lymphatic system caused by repeated, chronic infection of Wuchereria bancrofti or Brugia malayi, two mosquito-borne parasites of Africa and Southeast Asia, respectively. As such, the condition would be a part of more diffuse sequelae commonly referred to as elephantiasis, which also affects the lymphatic system in other parts of the body.


We researched this topic for you and found the following best online resources. They are categorized into basic, advanced, and research level based on the extent of information you need. You will be taken to the respective websites by pressing on the links below.


Basic information:

http://www.mayoclinic.org/diseases-conditions/hydrocele/basics/causes/con-20024139 mayoclinic. Hydrocele.

http://www.webmd.com/parenting/baby/tc/hydrocele-topic-overview webmd. Hydrocele.

http://patient.info/in/health/hydrocele-in-adults patient. Hydrocele in adults.

http://www.urology-textbook.com/hydrocele.html urology-textbook.com. Hydrocele testis

https://www.drugs.com/cg/hydrocele.html drugs.com. Hydrocele

http://www.chop.edu/conditions-diseases/hydrocele childrens hospital of philadelphia. Hydrocele

https://pedclerk.uchicago.edu/page/inguinal-hernias-hydroceles university of chicago. Pediatric clerkship. Inguinal hernias / hydroceles

http://www.guysandstthomas.nhs.uk/resources/patient-information/urology/procedures/hydrocele-repair.pdf guys and thomas. National health services uk. Hydrocele repair

https://mydoctor.kaiserpermanente.org/ncal/mdo/presentation/conditions/condition_viewall_page.jsp?condition=condition_inguinal_hernia_hydrocele_-_pedi_uro.xml&showprovider=false my doctor online. Inguinal hernia or hydrocele (boys)


Advanced information:

http://emedicine.medscape.com/article/438724-overview medscape. Hydrocele.

http://www.medicinenet.com/hydrocele_pediatric_testicular/article.htm medicine net. Pediatric hydrocele

http://www.urologycasereports.com/article/s2214-4420(15)00133-3/fulltext urology case reports. Conservative management of large ruptured hydrocele by viktor x. Flores et al. Doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.eucr.2015.08.002

https://online.epocrates.com/diseases/110411/hydrocele/key-highlights epocrates. Hydrocele

http://pediatricurologycasereports.com/ojs/index.php/pucr/article/view/81 pediatric urology case reports. Scrotal approach for the correction of an abdominoscrotal hydrocele: medium term follow-up by jaime pérez et al. Doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.14534/pucr.2015410991

https://www.lecturio.com/magazine/scrotal-mass/ lecturio. Scrotal mass, congenital- & acquired hydrocele and spermatocele

http://pubs.rsna.org/doi/full/10.1148/radiol.10091019 radiological society of north america. Case 164: funicular type of spermatic cord hydrocele by achint k. Singh et al. Doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1148/radiol.10091019

https://doaj.org/article/2add6e92ecb14d9ab62f6c1cdf13b63c directory of open access journals. Congenital hernias and hydrocele: importance of age by nitinkumar bhajandas borkar et al. African journal of paediatric surgery. 2015;12(2):158-158 doi 10.4103/0189-6725.160439

https://doaj.org/article/378e4a99ca0b419196f61fcaedc45e1d directory of open acess journals. Abdominoscrotal hydrocele with bilateral hydronephrosis in an adult: case report by bircan mutlu et al. Archivio italiano di urologia e andrologia. 2013;85(1):44-46 doi 10.4081/aiua.2013.1.44

https://doaj.org/article/8d9842088dc24fda8e52758b66e645da directory of open acess journals. Encysted hydrocele of the cord presenting as a groin swelling in an adult: a case report by bibekananda mahapatra et al. International journal of research in medical sciences. 2015;3(9):2475-2477 doi 10.18203/2320-6012.ijrms20150655



https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/nbk333501/ national center for biotechnology information. Chapter 9hernia and hydrocele by jessica h beard et al. Essential surgery: disease control priorities, third edition (volume 1).

http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=s1677-55382010000400028 scielo. Infant communicating hydroceles -- do they need immediate repair or might some clinically resolve? By koski me et al. Http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/s1677-55382010000400028

https://doaj.org/article/07bb3ea5b9f148fba016fd6e8495e2e7 directory of open acess journals. Study on the incidence of testicular and epididymal appendages in patients with cryptorchidism by favorito luciano a. Et al. International brazilian journal of urology. 2004;30(1):49-52

https://doaj.org/article/40af2528f9854d1e9f47aab26c027ccc directory of open acess journals.

Transilluminating testicular mass by santosh kumar mahalik et al. Indian journal of medical and paediatric oncology. 2011;32(1):46-48 doi 10.4103/0971-5851.81891

https://doaj.org/article/4fdb04416ad744738b7c96350d2d779c directory of open acess journals. Leiomyosarcoma of hydrocele sac (a case report). By sane s et al. Journal of postgraduate medicine. 1980;26(2):145-6

https://doaj.org/article/50d5d04aa93c453ca741c256e594b432 directory of open acess journals. Minimal hydrocelectomy with the aid of scrotoscope: a ten-year experience by yan bin et al. International brazilian journal of urology. 2014;40(3):384-389 doi 10.1590/s1677-5538.ibju.2014.03.13

https://doaj.org/article/55a7054c40d64c6da0acb89a35946ba3 directory of open acess journals. Adenocarcinoma of rete testis presenting as hydrocele by siddharth rao et al. Clinical cancer investigation journal. 2012;1(3):159-160 doi 10.4103/2278-0513.102893

https://doaj.org/article/6b8d2d18d78f4ad39b466f22a6bf7c2a directory of open acess journals. Fournier's gangrene developing secondary to infected hydrocele: a unique clinical scenario by umran sarwar et al. Urology annals. 2012;4(2):131-134 doi 10.4103/0974-7796.95577

https://doaj.org/article/6c76d2ec1eb54fdf87e172a5a1d88a56 directory of open access journals. Cytopathological diagnosis of an unusual cause of malignant hydrocele by ankur jain et al. Clinical medicine insights : pathology. 2016;2016(9):29-31

https://doaj.org/article/ad85f30ce73f410bab60957607f366e4 directory of open acess journals. Giant unilateral hydrocele ''en-bisac'' with right hydronephrosis in an adult: a rare entity by dharamveer singh et al. Indian journal of urology. 2011;27(1):142-143 doi 10.4103/0970-1591.78413


Related topics:

http://europepmc.org/abstract/med/21557180 europe pmc. [sclerotherapy of idiopatic hydrocele with polidocanol: a study about 190 cases]. By sallami s et al. La tunisie medicale [2011, 89(5):440-444]

https://doaj.org/article/94623a399bab47a1ad8d46d9d191fce5 directory of open acess journals. A case of hydrocele stone with its composition analysis by masayoshi zaitsu et al. Case reports in medicine. 2010;2010 doi 10.1155/2010/586204

https://doaj.org/article/4b47818394be4b9683b18e33cc7a5eab directory of open acess journals. Cystic swellings of scrotum: management by subith kumar k et al. International journal of medical research and health sciences. 2014;3(2):338-341 doi 10.5958/j.2319-5886.3.2.070

https://doaj.org/article/579df3cfce7a46abacde737dc7216806 directory of open acess journals. Longstanding hydrocele in adult black africans: is preoperative scrotal ultrasound justified? By chukwudi o okorie et al. Nigerian medical journal. 2011;52(3):173-176 doi 10.4103/0300-1652.86130

https://doaj.org/article/5af56676757a4e428654544810e7d6f5 directory of open acess journals. Sclerotherapy in patients with hydrocele by z. A. Kadyrov et al. Andrologiâ i genital'naâ hirurgiâ. 2014;14(3):6-11

https://doaj.org/article/b13f7a7820e642fa9f0fa0cbc8d55306 directory of open acess journals. Morvan syndrome: after scrotal sac drainage and chemical instillation in hydrocele by sanjay sharma et al. Neurology india. 2013;61(3):300-302 doi 10.4103/0028-3886.115072

https://doaj.org/article/b3a17e9933ab4de5912d8f52c69c81ac directory of open acess journals. Abdominal wall hydrocele: a rare late postoperative complication of drain site wound incisional hernia by edgar d. Sy et al. Journal of pediatric surgery case reports. 2015;3(1):16-18 doi 10.1016/j.epsc.2014.11.012

https://doaj.org/article/0e8bb829a5fd4da78886d2dba13b0526 directory of open acess journals. Secondary plasmacytoma of the testis with hydrocele: a rare case report by c gururajaprasad et al. Indian journal of cancer. 2015;52(4):680-681 doi 10.4103/0019-509x.178385

https://doaj.org/article/18e156e7aa2c4548936132279614e3c9 directory of open acess journals. Sclerotherapy of hydroceles and spermatoceles with alcohol: results and effects on the semen analysis by chen jen shan et al. International brazilian journal of urology. 2011;37(3):307-313 doi 10.1590/s1677-55382011000300003

https://doaj.org/article/2253b9a423ef40a7a908556fc44df3a5 directory of open acess journals. Torsion of a communicating hydrocele presented as acute scrotum: a case report and literature review by ivonete siviero et al. Case reports in pediatrics. 2016;2016 doi 10.1155/2016/7236104


Other articles:

http://www.ncuh.nhs.uk/patients-and-visitors/patient-information-leaflets/paediatric/hydrocele-repair-child.pdf north cumbria university hospital. Nhs. Uk.hydrocele repair.

http://www.ipeg.org/hernia/ international pediatricendosurgery group. Ipeg guidelines for inguinal hernia and hydrocele

http://www.ommegaonline.org/article-details/development-of-a-%c3%a2%e2%82%ac%c5%93fast-track%c3%a2%e2%82%ac%20-protocol-for-hydrocele-surgery/1193 ommega publishers. Development of a “fast-track” protocol for hydrocele surgery by pedro navalon verdejo et al. Doi: 10.15436/2377-1364.16.055

https://doaj.org/article/2d30534762744e89bd1cb75afd42227e directory of open acess journals. Scrotal swelling as a complication of hydrochlorothiazide induced acute pancreatitis by ivan nikiforov et al. Case reports in gastrointestinal medicine. 2015;2015 doi 10.1155/2015/265273

https://doaj.org/article/56c24caf4bdd4cb3b47b46447344e955 directory of open acess journals. Canal of nuck cyst masquerading as a testicle in a neonate: a case report and review of the literature by lelah grossmanet al. Pediatric urology case reports. 2016;3(6):211-215 doi 10.14534/pucr.2016622491

https://doaj.org/article/86a28d02631b4a01b63fe2c0042d53fa directory of open acess journals. Minimally access versus conventional hydrocelectomy: a randomized trial by aly saber . International brazilian journal of urology. 2015;41(4):750-756 doi 10.1590/s1677-5538.ibju.2014.0248

https://doaj.org/article/a2ea960c0cc8416da9682597af85b9f0 directory of open acess journals. Scrotal approach for the correction of an abdominoscrotal hydrocele: medium term follow-up by jaime pérez et al. Pediatric urology case reports. 2015;2(4):25-30 doi 10.14534/pucr.2015410991

https://doaj.org/article/86c8260eb2e1477789e4782b278c718c directory of open acess journals. Hydrocele following placement of a ventriculoperitoneal shunt case report by josé sena calvário et al. Arquivos de neuro-psiquiatria. 1990;48(1):113-115 doi 10.1590/s0004-282x1990000100017

https://doaj.org/article/c8f34a2bcb3d457ebc2837f6ebef8d5b directory of open acess journals. Hydrocele fluid: can it be used for immunodiagnosis of lymphatic filariasis? By s. Mishra et al. Journal of vector borne diseases. 2014;51(3):188-193

http://www.netdoctor.co.uk/conditions/sexual-health/a11991/hydrocele-and-varicocele/ net doctor. Hydrocele and varicocele


Other useful information:

http://www.urologyhealth.org/ urology care foundation.

https://www.auanet.org/ american urological association.


Related vedios/presentations:

http://www.drbrianstork.com/portfolio/hydrocele-and-spermatocele-surgery/ dr brian stork. Hydrocele and spermatocele

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=rloofvgr1zi youtube. Hydrocele

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=dekd6exfzf4 youtube. A big hydrocele

https://www.slideshare.net/abinodavid/hydrocele slideshare. Hydrocele

https://www.slideshare.net/link2mink/hydrocele-dr-ashok-kumar slide share. Hydrocele ppt by dr. Ashok kumar , lhmc

http://www.slideserve.com/opal/hydrocele slideserve. Hydrocele

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