hook-worm-infection
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Hook worm infection

Hook worm infection

Last Reviewed : 12/24/2020
Hook worm infection

Hookworm infection, also known as hookworm disease, is an infection by a parasitic bloodsucking roundworm. Hookworm infections include ancylostomiasis and necatoriasis. These worms live in the small intestine of their host, which may be a bird or a mammal such as a dog, cat, or human. Hookworm infection in pregnancy can cause retarded growth of the fetus, premature birth and a low birth weight. Hookworms in children can cause intellectual, cognitive and growth problems.

Two species of hookworms commonly infect humans: Ancylostoma duodenale and Necator americanus. A. duodenalepredominates in the Middle East, North Africa, India and (formerly) in southern Europe, while N. americanus predominates in the Americas, Sub-Saharan Africa, Southeast Asia, China, and Indonesia. A. tubaeforme infects cats, A. caninum infects dogs and A. braziliense and Uncinaria stenocephala infect both cats and dogs. Hookworms are much smaller than the giant roundwormsAscaris lumbricoides and so cause less tissue damage and obstruction. The most significant risk of hookworm infection isanemia, secondary to loss of iron (and protein) in the gut. The worms suck blood voraciously and damage the mucosa. However, the blood loss in the stools is not visibly apparent.

Hookworm infection affects over half a billion people globally. It is a leading cause of maternal and child morbidity in the developing countries of the tropics and subtropics. In developed countries, hookworm infection is rarely fatal, but anemia can be significant in a heavily infected individual. Hookworm infection is a soil-transmitted helminthiasis and therefore classified as aneglected tropical disease. Ancylostomiasis is the disease caused when Ancylostoma duodenale hookworms, present in large numbers, produce an iron deficiency anemia by sucking blood from the host's intestinal walls.

 

We researched this topic for you and found the following best online resources. They are categorized into basic, advanced, and research level based on the extent of information you need. You will be taken to the respective websites by pressing on the links below.

 

Basic information:

Http://www.msdmanuals.com/home/infections/parasitic-infections/hookworm-infection msd manuals(consumer version) hookworm infection

Http://www.healthline.com/health/hookworm health line hookworm infection

Http://www.nhs.uk/conditions/hookworm/pages/introduction.aspx nhs uk hookworm infection

Https://medlineplus.gov/ency/article/000629.htm medline plus hookworm infection

Http://www.niaid.nih.gov/topics/hookworm/pages/default.aspx national institute of allergy and infectious diseases hookworm infection

Http://www.nytimes.com/health/guides/disease/hookworm/overview.html new york times hookworm

Http://my.clevelandclinic.org/health/diseases_conditions/hic_parasitic_roundworm_diseases/hic-hookworm-diseasecleveland clinic hookworm disease

Http://www.dermnetnz.org/topics/hookworm-infections dermnet nz hookworm infection

Https://www.healthychildren.org/english/health-issues/conditions/from-insects-animals/pages/hookworms.aspx healthy children hookworms

 

Advanced information:

Http://www.msdmanuals.com/professional/infectious-diseases/nematodes-roundworms/hookworm-infection msd manuals (professional version) hookworm infection

Http://emedicine.medscape.com/article/218805-overview medscape hookworm infection

Http://patient.info/in/doctor/hookworm-infections patient hookworm infection

Http://www.news-medical.net/health/hookworm-infections-in-humans.aspx news medical hookworm infections in humans

Http://www.parasitesinhumans.org/hookworms.html parasite in humans hookworms

Http://www.aarogya.com/conditions-and-diseases/hookworm.html aarogya hookworm

Http://www.parasitecleanse.com/hookworms.htm parasite cleanse hookworm

Http://rockefeller100.org/exhibits/show/health/eradicating-hookworm rockfeller 100 eradicating hookworm

Http://www.histopathology-india.net/howo.htm histo pathology india.net pathology of hookworm infection (ancylostomiasis)

Http://www.sabin.org/programs/vaccine-development/human-hookworm-vaccine sabin vaccine institute human hookworm vaccine

Http://www.who.int/mediacentre/factsheets/fs366/en/ world health organisation soil-transmitted helminth infections fact sheet updated march 2016

Http://www.rightdiagnosis.com/h/hookworm/intro.htm riht diagnosis hookworm

Http://www.unicef.org/eapro/prevention_of_intestinal_worm_infections.pdf prevention of intestinal worms

 

Research:

Http://www.nejm.org/doi/full/10.1056/nejmra032492#t=article hookworm infection by peter j. Hotez, m.d., ph.d., simon brooker, d.phil., jeffrey m. Bethony, ph.d., maria elena bottazzi, ph.d., alex loukas, ph.d., and shuhua xiao, m.d. N engl j med 2004; 351:799-807august 19, 2004doi: 10.1056/nejmra032492

Https://parasitesandvectors.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/1756-3305-2-44 the control of hookworm infection in china by qi zhenget al., parasites & vectors20092:44 doi: 10.1186/1756-3305-2-44

Http://cmr.asm.org/content/14/4/689.full.pdf immune responses in hookworm infections by alex loukas et al., clinical microbiology reviews,0893-8512/01/$04.000 doi: 10.1128/cmr.14.4.689–703.2001 oct. 2001, p. 689–703

Http://www.nature.com/articles/srep13797 experimental hookworm infection and escalating gluten challenges are associated with increased microbial richness in celiac subjects by paul giacomin et al., scientific reports 5, article number: 13797 (2015) doi:10.1038/srep13797

Http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?Id=10.1371/journal.pone.0145351 micronutrient-fortified rice can increase hookworm infection risk: a cluster randomized trial by brechje de gier et al.,http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0145351

Http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?Script=sci_arttext&pid=s0074-02761999000500003 mem. Inst. Oswaldo cruz vol.94 n.5 rio de janeiro sept. 1999 http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/s0074-02761999000500003 epidemiology of hookworm infection in itagua, paraguay: a cross sectional study vol. 94(5): 583-586 by nora labiano-abello et al.,

Http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/j.1365-3024.2010.01224.x/pdf review article the immunology of human hookworm infections by h. J. Mcsorley & a. Loukas parasite immunology, 2010, 32, 549–559 doi: 10.1111/j.1365-3024.2010.01224.x

Http://www.scielosp.org/scielo.php?Script=sci_arttext&pid=s0036-36342003000200008 salud pública méx vol.45 n.2 cuernavaca mar./apr. 2003 http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/s0036-36342003000200008 artículo breve:hookworm infection and anemia in adult women in rural chiapas, mexico by paula e. Brentlinger, md, mph et al

Http://pubmedcentralcanada.ca/pmcc/articles/pmc2268732/ adv parasitol. 2004; 58: 197–288. Doi: 10.1016/s0065-308x(04)58004-1 pmcid: pmc2268732 emsid: ukms797 human hookworm infection in the 21st century by simon brooker et al,

 

Other articles:

Http://www.petsandparasites.org/dog-owners/hookworms/ pets and parasites hookworm

Http://www.peteducation.com/article.cfm?C=2+2090&aid=747 pet education hookworm infection, prevention & treatment in dogs

Http://www.vcahospitals.com/main/pet-health-information/article/animal-health/hookworm-infection-in-dogs/785 vca hospitals hookworm infection in dogs

Http://pets.webmd.com/dogs/worms-in-dogs web md worms in dogs

Http://vetmedicine.about.com/od/diseasesandconditions/a/cw-doghookworms.htm vet medicine hookworms in dogs

Http://www.merckvetmanual.com/mvm/digestive_system/gastrointestinal_parasites_of_small_animals/hookworms_in_small_animals.htmlthe merck veterinary manuals hookworms in small animals

Http://www.pet360.com/dog/health/hookworms-in-dogs/3uanjdmqaeq-gurxakrbxa pet 360 hookworms in dogs

 

Related videos:

Https://www.youtube.com/watch?V=kdvhaoboxxq parasite hookworm infection

Https://www.youtube.com/watch?V=g5qwhmkuvf8 monster inside us (hookworm)

Https://www.youtube.com/watch?V=wxgwve8ytcq hook worm animation

Https://www.youtube.com/watch?V=7njkzf9ergs hookworm disease , health education , infection control (icsp) , urdu / hindi

Https://www.youtube.com/watch?V=c5kstn4sbak hookworm in eye

 

Presentations/quiz/newspaper articles:

Https://www.theguardian.com/lifeandstyle/2010/may/23/parasitic-hookworm-jasper-lawrence-tim-adams the guardian gut instinct: the miracle of the parasitic hookworm

Http://www.scidev.net/global/health/news/fortified-rice-risk-hookworm-infections.html scie dev net fortified rice raises risk of hookworm infections

Http://www.circleofblue.org/2015/water-quality/sanitation-health/hookworm-infections-and-sanitation-failures-plague-rural-alabama/ circle of blue hookworm infections and sanitation failures plague rural alabama

Https://www.ucsf.edu/news/2012/07/12271/new-drug-prospect-offers-hope-against-hookworm-infections university of california san fransisco new drug prospect offers hope against hookworm infections

Http://healthland.time.com/2012/04/18/doctor-infects-himself-with-parasites-for-health-experiment/ health land doctor infects himself with hookworm for health experiment

Http://www.npr.org/sections/goatsandsoda/2015/07/21/425049145/trying-to-get-the-world-unhooked-from-hookwormnpr trying to get the world unhooked from hookworm

Http://www.abc.net.au/news/2015-11-10/hookworm-larvae-injected-into-coeliacs-gluten-intolerance/6926286 abc.net hookworm larvae to be injected into coeliacs in bid to treat gluten intolerance

Http://www.huffingtonpost.in/entry/hookworm-genome-sequenced-new-treatments-infection_n_4632113 huffington post hookworm genome sequenced, raising hopes of cures for painful infection

Http://www.bbc.com/news/health-34857022 bbc news parasitic worm 'increases women's fertility'

Http://www.scientificamerican.com/article/hookworm-infection/ scientific american hookworm infection

Http://medicalxpress.com/news/2015-07-infecting-healthy-adults-hookworm-eradicating.html medical express infecting healthy adults with hookworm is the next step toward eradicating the infection

Https://www.washingtonpost.com/news/to-your-health/wp/2015/11/20/this-parasitic-worm-appears-to-boost-female-fertility/ washington post This parasitic worm appears to boost female fertility

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