hiv
18
HIV

HIV

Last Reviewed : 12/24/2020
HIV

The human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is a lentivirus (a subgroup of retrovirus) that causes HIV infection and over time acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). AIDS is a condition in humans in which progressive failure of the immune system allows life-threatening opportunistic infections and cancers to thrive. Without treatment, average survival time after infection with HIV is estimated to be 9 to 11 years, depending on the HIV subtype. Infection with HIV occurs by the transfer of blood, semen, vaginal fluid, pre-ejaculate, or breast milk. Within these bodily fluids, HIV is present as both free virus particles and virus within infected immune cells.

HIV infects vital cells in the human immune system such as helper T cells (specifically CD4+ T cells), macrophages, and dendritic cells. HIV infection leads to low levels of CD4+ T cells through a number of mechanisms, including pyroptosis of abortively infected T cells, apoptosis of uninfected bystander cells, direct viral killing of infected cells, and killing of infected CD4+ T cells by CD8 cytotoxic lymphocytes that recognize infected cells. When CD4+ T cell numbers decline below a critical level, cell-mediated immunity is lost, and the body becomes progressively more susceptible to opportunistic infections.

 

We researched this topic for you and found the following best online resources. They are categorized into basic, advanced, and research level based on the extent of information you need. You will be taken to the respective websites by pressing on the links below.

 

Basic information:

http://www.medicalnewstoday.com/articles/17131.php medical news today hiv/aids: causes, symptoms and treatments

http://www.cdc.gov/hiv/basics/whatishiv.html cdc about hiv/aids

http://www.healthline.com/health/hiv-aids/symptoms-men health line hiv symptoms in men

http://www.webmd.com/hiv-aids/ web md hiv & aids overview

http://www.mayoclinic.org/diseases-conditions/hiv-aids/basics/symptoms/con-20013732 mayoclinic symptoms

http://www.nhs.uk/conditions/hiv/pages/introduction.aspx nhs uk hiv and aids

http://www.merckmanuals.com/professional/infectious-diseases/human-immunodeficiency-virus-hiv/human-immunodeficiency-virus-hiv-infection merck manuals(professional version) human immunodeficiency virus (hiv) infection

https://www.betterhealth.vic.gov.au/health/conditionsandtreatments/hiv-and-aids bettr health hiv and aids

http://www.nytimes.com/health/guides/disease/aids/overview.html newyork times aids

 

Advanced information:

http://www.who.int/mediacentre/factsheets/fs360/en/ who hiv/aids

http://emedicine.medscape.com/article/211316-overview medscape hiv disease

http://www.amfar.org/worldwide-aids-stats/ amfar statistics: worldwide

http://patient.info/health/hiv-and-aids patient hiv and aids

http://www.tbfacts.org/tb-hiv/ tb facts tb and hiv – co-infection, diagnosis & treatment

http://www.hivguidelines.org/clinical-guidelines/post-exposure-prophylaxis/hiv-prophylaxis-following-non-occupational-exposure/ hiv clinical resource update: hiv prophylaxis following non-occupational exposure

http://genetics.thetech.org/original_news/news13 the tech the evolving genetics of hiv

 

Research:

http://thescipub.com/pdf/ajisp.2012.44.51.pdf microbial translocation and b cell dysfunction in human immunodeficiency virus disease by wei jiang et al., american journal of immunology 8 (2): 44-51, 2012

http://bmcpublichealth.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/1471-2458-8-220 contributions to early hiv diagnosis among patients linked to care vary by testing venue by michael s lyons et al., bmc public healthbmc series ¿ open, inclusive and trusted20088:220 doi: 10.1186/1471-2458-8-220

http://retrovirology.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/1742-4690-7-54 innate immune recognition and activation during hiv infection by trine h mogensen et al., retrovirology20107:54 doi: 10.1186/1742-4690-7-54

http://bmcmedicine.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/1741-7015-9-138 asymptomatic neurocognitive disorders in patients infected by hiv: fact or fiction? By carlo torti et al mc medicine20119:138 doi: 10.1186/1741-7015-9-138

http://resource-allocation.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/1478-7547-9-3 the cost-effectiveness of preventing mother-to-child transmission of hiv in low- and middle-income countries: systematic review by mira johri cost effectiveness and resource allocation20119:3 doi: 10.1186/1478-7547-9-3

http://globalizationandhealth.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/1744-8603-7-35 hiv as a chronic disease considerations for service planning in resource-poor settings by lucy reynolds et al., globalization and health20117:35 doi: 10.1186/1744-8603-7-35

http://thescipub.com/pdf/ajidsp.2012.132.148.pdf innate, adaptive and intrinsic immunity in human immunodeficiency virus infection by suneth s. Perera and nitin k. Saksena american journal of infectious diseases, 2012, 8 (3), 132-148

http://europepmc.org/backend/ptpmcrender.fcgi?accid=pmc4858222&blobtype=pdf : malhamé i, cormier m, sugarman j,schwartzman k (2016) latent tuberculosis in pregnancy: a systematic review. Plos one 11(5):e0154825. Doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0154825

http://bmchealthservres.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/1472-6963-12-196 improving data quality and supervision of antiretroviral therapy sites in malawi: an application of lot quality assurance sampling by bethany l hedt-gauthier et al., bmc health services researchbmc series ¿ open, inclusive and trusted201212:196 doi: 10.1186/1472-6963-12-196

http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=s1678-91992007000200003 j. Venom. Anim. Toxins incl. Trop. Dis vol.13 no.2 botucatu 2007 http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/s1678-91992007000200003 review article:intestinal microbiota and hiv-1 infection by trindade e. B. S. M

http://bmcinfectdis.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/1471-2334-12-130 hiv and hcv prevalence among entrants to methadone maintenance treatment clinics in china: a systematic review and meta-analysis by xun zhuang et al.,bmc infectious diseasesbmc series ¿ open, inclusive and trusted201212:130 doi: 10.1186/1471-2334-12-130

http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=s1413-86702003000100002 braz j infect dis vol.7 no.1 salvador feb. 2003 http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/s1413-86702003000100002 mini-review:diagnosis, antiretroviral therapy, and emergence of resistance to antiretroviral agents in hiv-2 infection: a review by maia hightower; esper georges kallas

http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/s2352621116000036 radiological features of aids complicated by pulmonary cryptococcosis: literature review and a report of 10 cases by xiao yu et al., radiology of infectious diseases volume 3, issue 1, march 2016, pages 9–14 doi:10.1016/j.jrid.2016.01.002

http://globalizationandhealth.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/1744-8603-6-3 national and subnational hiv/aids coordination: are global health initiatives closing the gap between intent and practice? By neil spicer et al.,globalization and health20106:3 doi: 10.1186/1744-8603-6-3

http://www.nejm.org/doi/full/10.1056/nejmoa0908492#t=article vaccination with alvac and aidsvax to prevent hiv-1 infection in thailand by supachai rerks-ngarm, m.d et al., n engl j med 2009; 361:2209-2220december 3, 2009doi: 10.1056/nejmoa0908492

 

Other helpful resources(support groups):

http://www.gatesfoundation.org/what-we-do/global-health/hiv what we do hiv strategy overview

http://www.nzaf.org.nz/hiv-aids-stis/hiv-aids/what-is-hiv/ newzealand aids foundation

http://sfaf.org/hiv-info/basics/how-is-hiv-transmitted.html?referrer=https://www.google.co.in/ san fransisco aids foundation how is hiv / aids transmitted?

http://www.allianceindia.org/ india hiv/aids alliance

http://www.pedaids.org/pages/about-pediatric-aids elizabeth glaser pediatric aids foundation

 

Related videos:

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=t-fvkhpd7cm early hiv symptoms in men

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=mvsgq4szzz0 signs you may have hiv

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=fdvndn0cvki the science of hiv/aids

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ng22ucr33aw medical animation: hiv and aids

 

Presentations/quiz/newspaper articles:

http://www.independent.co.uk/news/science/hiv-aids-cure-virus-disease-dna-genes-temple-university-research-gene-editing-a7037571.html hiv cure a step closer after scientists remove virus's dna from living tissue

http://medicalxpress.com/news/2016-06-potential-breakthrough-treatment-hiv.html study observes potential breakthrough in treatment of hiv

http://www.dailymail.co.uk/health/article-3311070/one-step-closer-hiv-cure-engineered-molecules-kill-infected-cells-wipe-hidden-reservoirs-virus.html one step closer to an hiv cure: engineered molecules 'kill infected cells and could wipe out hidden reservoirs of the virus'

read more: http://www.dailymail.co.uk/health/article-3311070/one-step-closer-hiv-cure-engineered-molecules-kill-infected-cells-wipe-hidden-reservoirs-virus.html#ixzz4bzar134l

Please leave your comments:



Related Articles