Hemoptysis is the coughing up blood or blood stained mucus that originated in the lungs or bronchial tubes. In children, lower respiratory tract infection and foreign body aspiration are common causes. In adults, bronchitis, bronchogenic carcinoma, and pneumonia are the major causes. The patient’s history should help determine the amount of blood and differentiate between hemoptysis, pseudohemoptysis, and hematemesis. A focused physical examination can lead to the diagnosis in most cases. Mild hemoptysis often is caused by an infection that can be managed on an outpatient basis with close monitoring. If hemoptysis persists, consulting with a pulmonologist should be considered. Hemoptysis is considered massive if there is more than 300 mL (11 imp fl oz; 10 US fl oz) of blood lost in 24 hours. In such cases, the primary danger comes from choking, rather than blood loss. Patients with risk factors for malignancy or recurrent hemoptysis also require further evaluation with fiberoptic bronchoscopy or high-resolution computed tomography. In up to 34 percent of patients, no cause of hemoptysis can be found.
We researched this topic for you and found the following best online resources. They are categorized into basic, advanced, and research level based on the extent of information you need. You will be taken to the respective websites by pressing on the links below.