hemolytic-uremic-syndrome
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Hemolytic uremic syndrome

Hemolytic uremic syndrome

Last Reviewed : 12/28/2020
Hemolytic uremic syndrome

Classic Hemolytic Uremic Syndrome / Diarrhea-Associated (D+) Hemolytic Uremic Syndrome / Shigatoxin-Associated Hemolytic Uremic Syndrome / Stx HUS [STEC HUS] / STEC HUS / Typical HUS

Hemolytic-uremic syndrome (or haemolytic-uraemic syndrome), abbreviated HUS, is a disease characterized by hemolytic anemia (anemia caused by destruction of red blood cells), acute kidney failure (uremia), and a low platelet count (thrombocytopenia). It predominantly, but not exclusively, affects children. Most cases are preceded by an episode of infectious, sometimes bloody, diarrhea acquired as a foodborne illness or from a contaminated water supply caused by E. coli O157:H7, other non-o157:H7 E. coli serotypes, Shigella, and Campylobacter. A variety of viruses have also been implicated as a causative agent. It is now the most common cause of acquired acute renal failure in childhood. It is a medical emergency and carries a 5–10% mortality rate; of the remainder, the majority recover without major consequences but a small proportion develop chronic kidney disease, meaning at some point they will likely become reliant on renal replacement therapy (dialysis or transplantation). The primary target appears to be the vascular endothelial cell. This may explain the pathogenesis of HUS, in which a characteristic renal lesion is capillary microangiopathy.

HUS was first defined as a syndrome in 1955. The more common form of the disease, Shiga-like toxin-producing E. coli HUS (STEC-HUS), is triggered by the infectious agent E. coli O157:H7, and several other non-O157:H7 E. coli serotypes. Certain Shiga toxin secreting strains of Shigella dysenteriae can also cause HUS. Approximately 5% of cases are classified as pneumococcal HUS, which results from infection by Streptococcus pneumoniae, the agent that causes traditional lobar pneumonia. There is also a rare, chronic, and severe form known as atypical hemolytic uremic syndrome (aHUS), which is caused by genetic defects resulting in chronic, uncontrolled complement activation. Both STEC-HUS and aHUS cause endothelial damage, leukocyte activation,platelet activation, and widespread inflammation and multiple thromboses in the small blood vessels, a condition known as systemicthrombotic microangiopathy (TMA), which leads to thrombotic events as well as organ damage/failure and death.

 

We researched this topic for you and found the following best online resources. They are categorized into basic, advanced, and research level based on the extent of information you need. You will be taken to the respective websites by pressing on the links below.

 

Basic information:

http://www.mayoclinic.org/diseases-conditions/hemolytic-uremic-syndrome/basics/definition/con-20029487 hemolytic-uremic syndrome

http://www.about-hus.com/ hemolytic-uremic syndrome

https://www.kidney.org/atoz/content/hemolytic national kidney foundation hemolytic-uremic syndrome

http://www.healthline.com/health/hemolytic-uremic-syndrome hemolytic-uremic syndrome

http://www.medicinenet.com/hemolytic_uremic_syndrome/article.htm hemolytic-uremic syndrome

http://www.msdmanuals.com/professional/hematology-and-oncology/thrombocytopenia-and-platelet-dysfunction/thrombotic-thrombocytopenic-purpura-(ttp)-and-hemolytic-uremic-syndrome-(hus) hemolytic-uremic syndrome

http://www.webmd.com/children/hemolytic-uremic-syndrome hemolytic-uremic syndrome

https://www.betterhealth.vic.gov.au/health/conditionsandtreatments/haemolytic-uraemic-syndrome hemolytic-uremic syndrome

https://www.kidneyresearchuk.org/health-information/haemolytic-uraemic-syndrome hemolytic-uremic syndrome

https://my.clevelandclinic.org/health/diseases_conditions/hic_hemolytic_uremic_syndrome hemolytic-uremic syndrome

https://www.urmc.rochester.edu/encyclopedia/content.aspx?contenttypeid=90&contentid=p03089 hemolytic-uremic syndrome

http://familydoctor.org/familydoctor/en/diseases-conditions/hemolytic-uremic-syndrome.printerview.all.html hemolytic-uremic syndrome

http://umm.edu/health/medical/ency/articles/hemolyticuremic-syndrome hemolytic-uremic syndrome

http://www.aboutkidshealth.ca/en/healthaz/conditionsanddiseases/kidneyandurinarydisorders/pages/diarrhea-associated-hemolytic-uremic-syndrome-hus.aspx diarrhoea associated hemolytic-uremic syndrome

http://www.nytimes.com/health/guides/disease/hemolytic-uremic-syndrome/overview.html hemolytic-uremic syndrome

http://www.nhs.uk/conditions/escherichia-coli-o157/pages/introduction.aspx hemolytic-uremic syndrome

 

Advanced information:

http://emedicine.medscape.com/article/201181-overview hemolytic-uremic syndrome

http://www.niddk.nih.gov/health-information/health-topics/kidney-disease/hemolytic-uremic-syndrome-in-children-hus/pages/facts.aspx hemolytic uremic syndrome in children

http://patient.info/doctor/haemolytic-uraemic-syndrome-pro hemolytic-uremic syndrome

http://rarediseases.org/rare-diseases/stec-hemolytic-uremic-syndrome/ nord hemolytic-uremic syndrome

http://www.emdocs.net/hus-pearls-and-pitfalls/ hemolytic uremic syndrome (hus): pearls and pitfalls

http://www.omim.org/entry/235400 hemolytic-uremic syndrome

http://radiopaedia.org/articles/haemolytic-uraemic-syndrome hemolytic-uremic syndrome

http://www.ct.gov/dph/cwp/view.asp?a=3136&q=388334 department of public health hemolytic uremic syndrome (hus) - fact sheet

http://nordphysicianguides.org/wp-content/uploads/2015/12/nord_physician%e2%80%99s-guide-to-ahus.pdf nord guides for physicians the physician’s guide to atypical hemolytic uremic syndrome (ahus)

http://www.foodpoisonjournal.com/food-poisoning-information/e-coli-and-its-sometimes-deadly-result-hemolytic-uremic-syndrome-hus-what-is-it/#.vzcwsnkuesq food poisoning journal e. Coli and its sometimes deadly result hemolytic uremic syndrome (hus) – what is it?

http://www.fpnotebook.com/hemeonc/id/hmlytcurmcsyndrm.htm

https://www.hawaii.edu/medicine/pediatrics/pedtext/s13c05.html department of pediatrics university of hawaii john a.burns school of medicine chapter xiii.5. Hemolytic uremic syndrome alicia g. Turlington, md october 2013

 

Research:

http://www.aafp.org/afp/2006/0915/p991.html hemolytic uremic syndrome: an emerging health risk samiya razzaq, m.d., university of arkansas for medical sciences, college of medicine, little rock, arkansas am fam physician. 2006 sep 15;74(6):991-996.

http://med.stanford.edu/content/dam/sm/pednephrology/documents/secure/hemolytic-uremic-syndrome.pdf hemolytic-uremic syndromejames j. Corrigan, jr,md, and frank g.boineau, md pediatrics in review vol.22 no.11 november 2001

http://archpedi.jamanetwork.com/article.aspx?articleid=1262307 mody rk, luna-gierke re, jones tf, et al. Infections in pediatric postdiarrheal hemolytic uremic syndrome: factors associated with identifying shiga toxin–producing escherichia coli. Arch pediatr adolesc med. 2012;166(10):902-909. Doi:10.1001/archpediatrics.2012.471.

http://www.nature.com/nrneph/journal/v8/n11/full/nrneph.2012.196.html renal and neurological involvement in typical shiga toxin-associated hus by howard trachtman et al., nature reviews nephrology 8, 658-669 (november 2012) | doi:10.1038/nrneph.2012.196

http://www.nature.com/pr/journal/v69/n5-1/full/pr9201173a.html pediatric research (2011) 69, 390–394; doi:10.1203/pdr.0b013e318211dd57 a glucosylceramide synthase inhibitor protects rats against the cytotoxic effects of shiga toxin 2 by claudia silberstein et al.

http://ndt.oxfordjournals.org/content/17/5/941.2.full haemolytic uraemic syndrome following mumps, measles, and rubella vaccination by yousuf karim and amina masood nephrol. Dial. Transplant. (2002)17 (5): 941-942.doi: 10.1093/ndt/17.5.941-a

http://bmcmedicine.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/1741-7015-10-12 treatment of enterohemorrhagic escherichia coli (ehec) infection and hemolytic uremic syndrome (hus) by paul n goldwater and karl a bettelheim bmc medicine201210:12 doi: 10.1186/1741-7015-10-12

http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/s1010660x15000476 long-term follow-up of children with typical hemolytic uremic syndrome by birute pundziene et al medicina volume 51, issue 3, 2015, pages 146–151 doi:10.1016/j.medici.2015.06.004

http://asheducationbook.hematologylibrary.org/content/2012/1/617.full atypical hemolytic uremic syndrome: what is it, how is it diagnosed, and how is it treated? By carla m. Nester and christie p. Thomas doi:10.1182/asheducation-2012.1.617ash education bookdecember 8, 2012vol. 2012 no. 1 617-625

http://jasn.asnjournals.org/content/16/4/1035.full.pdf hemolytic uremic syndrome by marina noris and giuseppe remuzzi j am soc nephrol 16: 1035-1050, 2005. Doi: 10.1681/asn.2004100861

http://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s00467-007-0518-y pediatric nephrologynovember 2008, volume 23, issue 11, pp 1951-1956 streptococcus pneumoniae-associated hemolytic uremic syndrome lawrence copelovitch, bernard s. Kaplanfirst online: 13 june 2007 received: 05 april 2007 revised: 24 april 2007 accepted: 25 april 2007 doi: 10.1007/s00467-007-0518-y

http://jaoa.org/article.aspx?articleid=2094072 hemolytic uremic syndrome caused by shiga toxin–producing escherichia coli 0111 reza azadi, do; kenneth calabrese, do; jeffrey stroup, pharmd the journal of the american osteopathic association, september 2010, vol. 110, 538-544.

http://www.eurosurveillance.org/viewarticle.aspx?articleid=21417 eurosurveillance, volume 21, issue 11, 17 march 2016 rapid communication early findings in outbreak of haemolytic uraemic syndrome among young children caused by shiga toxin-producing escherichia coli, romania, january to february 2016 by e peron et al.,

http://care.diabetesjournals.org/content/28/10/2556.full diabetes during diarrhea-associated hemolytic uremic syndrome:a systematic review and meta-analysis by rita s. Suri, md et al., doi:10.2337/diacare.28.10.2556diabetes care october 2005 vol. 28 no. 10 2556-2562

http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?pid=s0101-28002014000200208&script=sci_arttext&tlng=en j. Bras. Nefrol. Vol.36 no.2 são paulo apr./june 2014 http://dx.doi.org/10.5935/0101-2800.20140032 review article:hemolytic-uremic syndrome in childhood by maria helena vaisbich

http://www.joplink.net/prev/200507/200507_15.pdf case report: haemolytic uraemic syndrome following acute pancreatitis by amit sinha, rakesh rai jop. J pancreas (online) 2005; 6(4):365-368.

http://springerplus.springeropen.com/articles/10.1186/s40064-016-1667-x exchange transfusion for neonate with haemolytic uremic syndrome by bedangshu saikia et al.,springerplus20165:52 doi: 10.1186/s40064-016-1667-x

http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ijn/2011/908407/ international journal of nephrology
volume 2011 (2011), article id 908407, 10 pages http://dx.doi.org/10.4061/2011/908407 review article hemolytic uremic syndrome: new developments in pathogenesis and treatment by olivia boyer and patrick niaudet

http://www.bloodjournal.org/content/125/23/3637 june 4, 2015; blood: 125 (23) modified ham test for atypical hemolytic uremic syndrome by eleni gavriilaki et al,

http://www.em-consulte.com/en/article/694253 management of hemolytic uremic syndrome by chantal loirat et al., la presse médicale volume 41, n° 3p2 pages e115-e135 (mars 2012) doi : 10.1016/j.lpm.2011.11.013

http://www.seminarsinnephrology.org/article/s0270-9295(13)00131-9/fulltext atypical hemolytic uremic syndrome by david kavanagh et al., doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.semnephrol.2013.08.003 november 2013volume 33, issue 6, pages 508–530

http://www.jimmunol.org/content/189/4/1858.full.pdf atypical hemolytic uremic syndrome-associated variants and autoantibodies impair binding of factor h and factor h-related protein 1 to pentraxin 3 by anne kopp et al., http://www.jimmunol.org/content/189/4/1858 doi: 10.4049/jimmunol.1200357 july 2012; j immunol 2012; 189:1858-1867; prepublished online 11

http://scielo.isciii.es/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=s0210-56912012000800009 med. Intensiva vol.36 no.8 barcelona nov. 2012 http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.medin.2011.11.022 e. Coli o104:h4 outbreak and haemolytic-uraemic syndrome by b. Borgatta et al.,

 

Related videos:

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ticlwmeye8e hemolytic-uremic syndrome

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=hogjhcooyqu hemolytic-uremic syndrome

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=lrtjevq-ch4 haemolytic uremic syndrome- e.coli.wmv

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=eb70wvnui7a medical school - ttp-hus made easy (thrombotic thrombocytopenia purpura - hemolytic uremic syndrome)

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=c2takojsfv4 hemolytic-uremic syndrome

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=l6cvcb6ak1e hemolytic-uremic syndrome

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=9ftqcgcb4pk hemolytic-uremic syndrome

 

Presentations/quiz/newspaper articles:

http://www.slideshare.net/suhraby_8668/hemolytic-uremic-syndrome-15203545 by dr.najibullah suhraby

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