Last Reviewed : 12/28/2020

Hemodialysis, also spelled haemodialysis, commonly called kidney dialysis or simply dialysis, is a process of purifying the blood of a person whose kidneys are not working normally. This type of dialysis achieves the extracorporeal removal of waste products such ascreatinine and urea and free water from the blood when the kidneys are in a state of renal failure. Hemodialysis is one of three renal replacement therapies (the other two being renal transplant and peritoneal dialysis). An alternative method for extracorporeal separation of blood components such as plasma or cells is apheresis.


Hemodialysis can be an outpatient or inpatient therapy. Routine hemodialysis is conducted in a dialysis outpatient facility, either a purpose built room in a hospital or a dedicated, stand alone clinic. Less frequently hemodialysis is done at home. Dialysis treatments in a clinic are initiated and managed by specialized staff made up of nurses and technicians; dialysis treatments at home can be self initiated and managed or done jointly with the assistance of a trained helper who is usually a family member.


We researched this topic for you and found the following best online resources. They are categorized into basic, advanced, and research level based on the extent of information you need. You will be taken to the respective websites by pressing on the links below.


Basic information:

http://www.webmd.com/a-to-z-guides/hemodialysis-20667 web md hemodialysis

https://www.niddk.nih.gov/health-information/health-topics/kidney-disease/hemodialysis/pages/facts.aspx national institute for diabetes and digestive and kidney diseases treatment methods for kidney failure: hemodialysis

http://www.mayoclinic.org/tests-procedures/hemodialysis/home/ovc-20229742 mayo clinic hemodialysis

https://medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000707.htm medline plus dialysis - hemodialysis

http://www.emoryhealthcare.org/dialysis/treatments.html emory health care dialysis treatment options

http://www.merckmanuals.com/professional/genitourinary-disorders/renal-replacement-therapy/hemodialysis merck manuals (professional version) hemodialysis

http://www.healthline.com/health/dialysis health line dialysis

http://bodyandhealth.canada.com/channel/kidney-health/kidney-disease-management/hemodialysiscanada .com hemodialysis

http://my.clevelandclinic.org/health/treatments_and_procedures/hemodialysis cleveland clinic hemodialysis


Advanced information:

http://www.medicinenet.com/hemodialysis/article.htm medicine net .com hemodialysis treatment for kidney failure

http://www.uptodate.com/contents/hemodialysis-beyond-the-basics upto date patient education: hemodialysis (beyond the basics)



https://www.hindawi.com/journals/ijn/2012/649735/ lalathaksha kumbar, jariatul karim, and anatole besarab, “surveillance and monitoring of dialysis access,”international journal of nephrology, vol. 2012, article id 649735, 9 pages, 2012. Doi:10.1155/2012/649735

Karkar a, bouhaha bm, dammang ml. Infection control in hemodialysis units: a quick access to essential elements. Saudi j kidney dis transpl [serial online] 2014 [cited 2016 sep 30];25:496-519. Available from: http://www.sjkdt.org/text.asp?2014/25/3/496/132150

https://www.hindawi.com/journals/bmri/2015/724147/ chia-ter chao, jenq-wen huang, and chung-jen yen, “intradialytic hypotension and cardiac remodeling: a vicious cycle,” biomed research international, vol. 2015, article id 724147, 7 pages, 2015. Doi:10.1155/2015/724147

https://www.hindawi.com/journals/ijn/2011/272535/ fahad saeed, nikhil agrawal, eugene greenberg, and jean l. Holley, “lower gastrointestinal bleeding in chronic hemodialysis patients,” international journal of nephrology, vol. 2011, article id 272535, 8 pages, 2011. Doi:10.4061/2011/272535

http://bmcmusculoskeletdisord.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/1471-2474-10-60 factors associated with low bone mass in the hemodialysis patients – a cross-sectional correlation study by guey-shiun huang et al., bmc musculoskeletal disorders200910:60 doi: 10.1186/1471-2474-10-60

http://bmcnephrol.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/1471-2369-5-9 dialysis disequilibrium syndrome: brain death following hemodialysis for metabolic acidosis and acute renal failure – a case report by sean m bagshaw et al., bmc nephrology20045:9 doi: 10.1186/1471-2369-5-9

https://www.hindawi.com/journals/sarcoma/2009/575629/ sheron latcha, robert g. Maki, gary k. Schwartz, and carlos d. Flombaum, “ifosfamide may be safely used in patients with end stage renal disease on hemodialysis,” sarcoma, vol. 2009, article id 575629, 5 pages, 2009. Doi:10.1155/2009/575629

http://eurjmedres.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/2047-783x-14-5-185 adherence to prescribed oral medication in adult patients undergoing chronic hemodialysis: a critical review of the literature by h schmid et al., european journal of medical research200914:185 doi: 10.1186/2047-783x-14-5-185

http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=s1413-86702008000600017 braz j infect dis vol.12 no.6 salvador dec. 2008 http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/s1413-86702008000600017 case reports vascular access-related infections in hiv patients undergoing hemodialysis: case description and literature review by carlos e. Figueroa castro; miguel g. Madariaga

Morena m, martin-mateo m, cristol jp, canaud b. Rationale for antioxidant supplementation in hemodialysis patients. Saudi j kidney dis transpl [serial online] 2001 [cited 2016 sep 30];12:312-24. Available from: http://www.sjkdt.org/text.asp?2001/12/3/312/33555

Karkar a, hegbrant j, strippoli gf. Benefits and implementation of home hemodialysis: a narrative review. Saudi j kidney dis transpl [serial online] 2015 [cited 2016 sep 30];26:1095-107. Available from: http://www.sjkdt.org/text.asp?2015/26/6/1095/168556

http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=s1807-59322014000400271&lng=en&tlng=enclinics vol.69 no.4 são paulo 2014 http://dx.doi.org/10.6061/clinics/2014(04)09 reviews liver enzymes serum levels in patients with chronic kidney disease on hemodialysis: a comprehensive review by luís henrique bezerra cavalcanti sette, edmundo pessoa de almeida lopes

Alsmady m, shahait ad, alawwa ia, riziq mg, abusba aa, al-qudah a. Outcome of upper limb vascular access for hemodialysis. Saudi j kidney dis transpl [serial online] 2015 [cited 2016 sep 30];26:1210-4. Available from: http://www.sjkdt.org/text.asp?2015/26/6/1210/168626

Al-benna s, deardon d, hamilton d, el-enin h. Long-term outcome of upper limb autogenous arteriovenous fistulas for hemodialysis access. Saudi j kidney dis transpl [serial online] 2013 [cited 2016 sep 30];24:109-14. Available from: http://www.sjkdt.org/text.asp?2013/24/1/109/106303

http://bmcmedicine.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/1741-7015-7-25 trace elements in hemodialysis patients: a systematic review and meta-analysis by marcello tonelli et al., bmc medicine20097:25 doi: 10.1186/1741-7015-7-25

http://jasn.asnjournals.org/content/17/3_suppl_1/s24.full chapter 5: frequent and sustained hemodialysis by kailash jindal et al., jasn march 2006 vol. 17 no. 3 suppl 1 s24-s27

http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?pid=s0103-21002009000800014&script=sci_arttext&tlng=en acta paul. Enferm. Vol.22 no.spe1 são paulo 2009 http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/s0103-21002009000800014 original article hemodialysis: patient's adaptation and life style by genesis de souza barbosa, glaucia valente valadares


Other helpful resources(support groups):

https://www.kidney.org/atoz/content/hemodialysis national kidney foundation


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