Last Reviewed : 12/28/2020

Gout is usually characterized by recurrent attacks of inflammatory arthritis—a red, tender, hot, and swollen joint. Pain typically comes on rapidly in less than twelve hours. The joint at the base of the big toe is affected in about half of cases. It may also result in tophi, kidney stones, or urate nephropathy.

The cause is a combination of diet and genetic factors. It occurs more commonly in those who eat a lot of meat, drink a lot of beer, or are overweight. The underlying mechanism involves elevated levels of uric acid in the blood. At high levels, the uric acid crystallizes and the crystals deposit in joints, tendons and surrounding tissues, an attack of gout occurs. Diagnosis may be confirmed by seeing the crystals in joint fluid or tophus. Blood uric acid levels may be normal during an attack.

Treatment with nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), steroids, or colchicine improves symptoms. Once the acute attack subsides, levels of uric acid can be lowered via lifestyle changes and in those with frequent attacks, allopurinol or probenecid provides long-term prevention. Taking vitamin C and eating a diet high in low fat dairy products may be preventive.

Gout affects about 1 to 2% of the Western population at some point in their lives. It has become more common in recent decades. This is believed to be due to increasing risk factors in the population, such as metabolic syndrome, longer life expectancy and changes in diet. Older males are most commonly affected. Gout was historically known as "the disease of kings" or "rich man's disease". It has been recognized at least since the time of the ancient Egyptians.


We researched this topic for you and found the following best online resources. They are categorized into basic, advanced, and research level based on the extent of information you need. You will be taken to the respective websites by pressing on the links below.


Basic information:

http://www.webmd.com/arthritis/tc/gout-topic-overview web md gout

http://www.medicinenet.com/gout_gouty_arthritis/article.htm medicine net.com gout (gouty arthritis)

http://www.mayoclinic.org/diseases-conditions/gout/basics/definition/con-20019400 mayo clinic gout definition

http://www.nhs.uk/conditions/gout/pages/introduction.aspx nhs uk gout

http://www.rheumatology.org/i-am-a/patient-caregiver/diseases-conditions/gout american college of rheumatology gout

http://www.emedicinehealth.com/gout/article_em.htm emedicine health gout

https://www.betterhealth.vic.gov.au/health/conditionsandtreatments/gout better health gout

http://www.healthnavigator.org.nz/health-a-z/g/gout/ health navigator gout

http://www.everydayhealth.com/gout/gout-treatment.aspx everyday health gout treatment

http://my.clevelandclinic.org/services/orthopaedics-rheumatology/diseases-conditions/hic-gout clevland clinic gout

http://www.healthline.com/health/gout health line what is gout?

http://orthoinfo.aaos.org/topic.cfm?topic=a00598 ortho info gout

http://www.healthdirect.gov.au/gout health direct australia gout

http://familydoctor.org/familydoctor/en/diseases-conditions/gout.html family doctor.org gout

https://www.southerncross.co.nz/group/medical-library/gout-symptoms-diagnosis-treatment southen cross medical library gout


Advanced information:

http://patient.info/health/gout-leaflet patient gout

http://www.medicalnewstoday.com/articles/144827.php medical news today gout: causes, symptoms and treatments

http://emedicine.medscape.com/article/329958-overview mescape gout and pseudogout

http://www.cdc.gov/arthritis/basics/gout.html center for disease control gout

http://www.uptodate.com/contents/gout-beyond-the-basics upto date patient information: gout (beyond the basics)

http://www.nytimes.com/health/guides/disease/gout-chronic/print.html newyork times gout in-depth report

http://www.dermnetnz.org/systemic/gout.html dermnet nz gout

http://www.merckmanuals.com/professional/musculoskeletal-and-connective-tissue-disorders/crystal-induced-arthritides/gout merck manuals (professional version) gout

http://www.the-aps.org/mm/publications/journals/pim/choi-pdf.pdf pathogenesis of gout by hyon k. Choi, md, drph; david b. Mount, md; and anthony m. Reginato, md, phd ann intern med. 2005;143:499-516



http://www.pharmascitech.in/admin/php/uploads/78_pdf.pdf a brief review on calcium pyrophosphate deposition disease (pseudogout) by manoj a. Suva , ankita m. Patelvolume 4, issue1, 2014; journal of pharmascitech

Akl k, ghawanmeh r. The clinical spectrum of idiopathic hyperuricosuria in children: isolated and associated with hypercalciuria/hyperoxaluria. Saudi j kidney dis transpl [serial online] 2012 [cited 2016 jun 13];23:979-84. Available from: http://www.sjkdt.org/text.asp?2012/23/5/979/100879

Zeng m, zhang m, liu f, yan w, kong q, sang h. Drug eruptions induced by allopurinol associated with hla-b*5801. Indian j dermatol venereol leprol [serial online] 2015 [cited 2016 jun 13];81:43-5. Available from: http://www.ijdvl.com/text.asp?2015/81/1/43/148566

http://www.hindawi.com/journals/bmri/2015/762820/ biomed research international
volume 2015 (2015), article id 762820, 12 pages http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2015/762820 research article:prevalence of hyperuricemia and gout in mainland china from 2000 to 2014: a systematic review and meta-analysis by rui liu et al.,

http://www.hindawi.com/journals/mi/2015/680853/ mediators of inflammation
volume 2015 (2015), article id 680853, 6 pages http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2015/680853 review article:increased risk of cancer in relation to gout: a review of three prospective cohort studies with 50,358 subjects by weijie wang et al

http://www.hindawi.com/journals/bmri/2015/762820/ biomed research international
volume 2015 (2015), article id 762820, 12 pages http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2015/762820 research article:prevalence of hyperuricemia and gout in mainland china from 2000 to 2014: a systematic review and meta-analysis by rui liu et al.,

http://europepmc.org/backend/ptpmcrender.fcgi?accid=pmc4521845&blobtype=pdf gout and risk of myocardial infarction: a systematic review and meta-analysis of cohort studies by shuang-chun liu et al.,

http://www.nejm.org/doi/full/10.1056/nejmoa035700#t=article purine-rich foods, dairy and protein intake, and the risk of gout in men by hyon k. Choi, m.d.,et al., n engl j med 2004; 350:1093-1103march 11, 2004doi: 10.1056/nejmoa035700

http://archinte.jamanetwork.com/article.aspx?articleid=775622 gout, allopurinol use, and heart failure outcomes by george thanassoulis, md et al., arch intern med. 2010;170(15):1358-1364. Doi:10.1001/archinternmed.2010.198.

http://rheumatology.oxfordjournals.org/content/48/suppl_2/ii2.full new insights into the epidemiology of gout by michael doherty rheumatology (2009) 48 (suppl 2): ii2-ii8.doi:10.1093/rheumatology/kep086this article appears in:can we make gout crystal clear? Proceedings of a satellite symposium held on the occasion of the eular congress, paris, france, june 13, 2008

http://arthritis-research.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/s13075-015-0609-2 an update on the genetic architecture of hyperuricemia and gout by tony r merriman arthritis research & therapy201517:98 doi: 10.1186/s13075-015-0609-2


Other helpful resources(support groups):

http://www.arthritis.org/about-arthritis/types/gout/ arthritis foundation

https://www.arthritiscare.org.uk/what-is-arthritis/types-of-arthritis/54-gout arthritis care

http://www.arthritisresearchuk.org/arthritis-information/conditions/gout.aspx arthritis research uk


Related videos:

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=sh_cefakla8 gout

http://study.com/academy/lesson/what-is-gout-causes-symptoms-treatment.html what is gout? - causes, symptoms & treatment

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=qoa7tlnwfxs gout: treatment, causes, massage therapy, prevention

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=eyi32ijsi3i gout - toe full of tophi

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=z2jelubfwuq gout

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=btuhyptwd7q gout treatment tips and advice


Presentations/quiz/newspaper articles:

http://www.express.co.uk/life-style/health/613880/gout-signs-symptoms-treatment-alcohol express uk struggling with painful gout - dr beecraft talks symptoms, treatment and lifestyle changes

http://www.dailymail.co.uk/health/article-206818/gout-attacks-young-women.html daily mail gout attacks young women

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